2Motives for European Exploration Crusades by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.Renaissance curiosity about other lands and peoples.Reformation refugees & missionaries.Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.Technological advances.Fame and fortune.
3The 3 motives reinforce each other Direct Causes = 3 G’sPolitical: Become a world power through gaining wealth and land. (GLORY)Economic: Search for new trade routes with direct access to Asian/African luxury goods would enrich individuals and their nations (GOLD)Religious: spread Christianity and weaken Middle Eastern Muslims. (GOD)The 3 motives reinforce each other
8Europeans reach and settle Americas EUROPEAN EXPLORATION1400 TO 1600European exploreEFFECTSEuropeans reach and settle AmericasExpanded knowledge of world geographyGrowth of trade, mercantilism and capitalismIndian conflicts over land and impact of disease on Indian populationsIntroduction of the institution of slaveryColumbian Exchange
9European Colonization Once the New World is discovered, the Big 4 four European countries begin competing for control of North America and the world….SpainEngland The Three MainFranceNetherlandsThis power struggle ultimately leads to several wars.
10Spain Claims AmericaBy 1500’s most of Caribbean islands explored and start on mainlandLine of Demarcation set by Pope Alexander VI giving Spain control of everything west of it to Spain and east of it went to PortugalSpain ends up with all the Americas except BrazilTreaty of Tordesillas gave Spain the right to claim these new lands.
11The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1434 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation, 1493
12Spain1492 funded by King Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, Columbus sails westEnds up in the Bahamas on what today is Watling IslandAlso found islands of Cuba and HispaniolaMost of exploration was in South and Central America by his brother Bartolomew
13Spain Claims America The Columbian Exchange Native Americans:taught Europeans farming methodsAlso introduced them to new crops such as corn, tobacco and potatoes.Introduced them to the canoe.Europeans:introduced Native Americans to wheat, oats, barley, and domestic livestock.Also introduced technologies such as metalworking.Unfortunately they also introduced diseases that killed many Natives.
15Mexican ConquestNames entire colony New Spain – covers most of what is today Mexico and Central AmericaThe men who led the expeditions were called conquistadorsPizarro, who explored Peru, was one of themCoronada, Narvaez, and de Soto were as wellGod, Gold, Glory
16The FrenchFrench settle Quebec (1608) & Montreal (1642) and what would become CanadaControl St. Lawrence River & access to interior of North AmericaDevelop a fur tradeCoureur de Bois
17The French in America Verrazano sent to map North American coastline Cartier explored and mapped the St. Lawrence RiverChamplain established a colony in what is now Nova Scotia and founded Quebec which later became the capital of New France.New France founded for fur trade. Those traders were known as coureurs de bois and lived among the Native Americans
18The Spanish Spanish first to pursue colonization Start in Caribbean, then Central and South America—most important was conquest of Aztecs by Cortez (1521) and Incas by Pizzaro (1531)First permanent colonies in what will become United States are founded by SpainSt. Augustine (Florida) is founded (1565) to protect Spanish treasure fleets
19Spanish empire by the 1600’s consisted of the part of North AmericaCentral AmericaCaribbean IslandsMuch of South America.
20First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Cortes conquered Aztec Empire in and took control of modern day Mexico.vs.Hernando CortésMontezuma II
21England Takes an Interest in America Changes in England lead to interest in colonizationReligious changes – Protestant ReformationEconomic changes – tenant farmers pushed off land to make room for raising sheep to support demand for woolJoint-stock companies founded to establish colonies as new markets for surplus wool
24Why do England and Spain want the Americas so much? England was now a protestant country and Spain was CatholicSpain tried to stop the spread of Protestantism to the Netherlands and the Dutch rebelled.England came to the aid of the Dutch against Spain.Queen Elizabeth I allowed privateers to attack Spanish ships.American colonies were needed as bases to attack Spanish in the Caribbean.
25Early American Colonies New EnglandMid-AtlanticSouthern
26TYPES OF ENGLISH COLONIES CHARTER- GRANT OF LAND TO A BUSINESSPROPRIETARY- GRANT OF LAND TO INDIVIDUALROYALKING APPOINTS GOVERNOR – RETAINS CONTROLCOLONIES ARE BASED ON TRADE / AGRICULTURE
29PlymouthFounded by Separatists who had broken from the Church of England.They were known as pilgrimsThe pilgrims had originally gone to Holland but came on to America.Settled in Plymouth in 1620.Led by William Bradford.Survived thanks to a native named Squanto who taught them to survive off the land.
30Massachusetts Bay Colony Founded by those Puritans who had remained in the Church of England and tried to reform it.Left England because of persecution and depression in wool industryStarted by John Winthrop and other wealthy Puritans who held stock in the Mass. Bay Co.As conditions in England got worse had a Great Migration – by 1643 had population of 20,000.
31Laws were made by a General Court made up of ‘freemen” –stockholders in the company Later became a representative assemblyAll colonists were required to attend churchChurch was supported by taxes and regulated people’s moral behaviorPeople whose religious beliefs differed from the majority were called heretics and were considered a threat to the community.
32Rhode IslandStarted by Roger Williams who had been banished from the Massachusetts colonyFounded the town of ProvidenceAnne Hutchinson founded the town of Portsmouth when she was branded a heretic in Massachusetts and banished from the colony.The towns of Newport and Warwick were also started by people who were banished from Massachusetts.The colony’s charter included a total separation of church and state.
33ConnecticutFounded by Thomas Hooker who left Massachusetts because he opposed the policy of allowing only church members to vote.Constitution of the colony was called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut which was the first written constitution in the colonies.
41MIDDLE COLONIES New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware A combination of the New England and Southern Colonies
42PENNSYLVANIA Founded by William Penn in 1680. He was a Quaker and intended the area to be a refuge for Quakers.Quakers had religious beliefs based on the idea that religion was a personal experience and churches and ministers weren’t necessary.They also were pacificists which meant they opposed war or violence as a means to settling conflicts.
43Everyone in the colony had religious and political freedom. Had a peace treaty with the local natives.Founded Philadelphia ‘The City of Brotherly Love” as its capital.Had a charter that allowed for a legislative assembly. Anyone who had 50 acres and were Christian had the right to vote.Penn bought the land south of Pennsylvania and it later became the colony of Delaware.
44SOUTHERN COLONIES Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
45Southern Colonies Virginia was a land grant The land south of Virginia was given to the king’s friends and political allies.The land was known as Carolina and later developed as two separate regions – North Carolina and South Carolina.
47SOUTH CAROLINA Originally SC grew indigo and rice CASH CROP – COTTON & TOBACCO – discovered by John RolfePLANTATIONS REQUIRE LARGE TRACTS OF LANDSLAVERY BY THE MID 1600sSELF SUFFICIENT INDIVIDUALS
48Wet climate of South Carolina (and Georgia) made rice and indigo important crops.North Carolina also produced tar, pitch, and turpentineSouth’s reliance on “staple crops” or ones in large demandgave rise to the plantation systemIndentured servants, or people who couldn’t afford topay their own way to the new world agreed to work forplantation owners for a certain number of years (usually 7)gave way to slavery in the SouthBecause most of these plantations were along waterwaysthe South did not develop major centers of commerceas did the North.
49VIRGINIA A joint stock company which makes it a charter Established in 1607 by the Virginia Company,Mostly men were sent.First successful English settlement was JamestownInstituted the headright system to attract people tosettle there – promised 50 acres of land to thosewho would settle the colony.
58Tobacco Plant Main cash crop in Virginia , Maryland, and North Carolinabecause of popularity in England
59Early Colonial Tobacco 1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco.1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco.1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco.1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.