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European Exploration in the New World.

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Presentation on theme: "European Exploration in the New World."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Exploration in the New World

2 Motives for European Exploration
Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia. Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples. Reformation  refugees & missionaries. Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue. Technological advances. Fame and fortune.

3 The 3 motives reinforce each other
Direct Causes = 3 G’s Political: Become a world power through gaining wealth and land. (GLORY) Economic: Search for new trade routes with direct access to Asian/African luxury goods would enrich individuals and their nations (GOLD) Religious: spread Christianity and weaken Middle Eastern Muslims. (GOD) The 3 motives reinforce each other

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8 Europeans reach and settle Americas
EUROPEAN EXPLORATION 1400 TO 1600 European explore EFFECTS Europeans reach and settle Americas Expanded knowledge of world geography Growth of trade, mercantilism and capitalism Indian conflicts over land and impact of disease on Indian populations Introduction of the institution of slavery Columbian Exchange

9 European Colonization
Once the New World is discovered, the Big 4 four European countries begin competing for control of North America and the world…. Spain England The Three Main France Netherlands This power struggle ultimately leads to several wars.

10 Spain Claims America By 1500’s most of Caribbean islands explored and start on mainland Line of Demarcation set by Pope Alexander VI giving Spain control of everything west of it to Spain and east of it went to Portugal Spain ends up with all the Americas except Brazil Treaty of Tordesillas gave Spain the right to claim these new lands.

11 The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1434 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation, 1493

12 Spain 1492 funded by King Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, Columbus sails west Ends up in the Bahamas on what today is Watling Island Also found islands of Cuba and Hispaniola Most of exploration was in South and Central America by his brother Bartolomew

13 Spain Claims America The Columbian Exchange
Native Americans: taught Europeans farming methods Also introduced them to new crops such as corn, tobacco and potatoes. Introduced them to the canoe. Europeans: introduced Native Americans to wheat, oats, barley, and domestic livestock. Also introduced technologies such as metalworking. Unfortunately they also introduced diseases that killed many Natives.

14 Columbian Exchange or the transfer of goods involved 3 continents, Americas, Europe and Africa
* Squash * Avocado * Peppers * Sweet Potatoes * Turkey * Pumpkin * Tobacco * Quinine * Cocoa * Pineapple * Cassava * POTATO * Peanut * Tomato * Vanilla * MAIZE * Syphillis * Olive * Coffee Beans * Banana * Rice * Onion * Turnip * Honeybee * Barley * Grape * Peach * Sugar Cane * Oats * Citrus Fruits * Pear * Wheat * HORSE * Cattle * Sheep * Pig * Smallpox * Flu * Typhus * Measles * Malaria * Diptheria * Whooping Cough

15 Mexican Conquest Names entire colony New Spain – covers most of what is today Mexico and Central America The men who led the expeditions were called conquistadors Pizarro, who explored Peru, was one of them Coronada, Narvaez, and de Soto were as well God, Gold, Glory

16 The French French settle Quebec (1608) & Montreal (1642) and what would become Canada Control St. Lawrence River & access to interior of North America Develop a fur trade Coureur de Bois

17 The French in America Verrazano sent to map North American coastline
Cartier explored and mapped the St. Lawrence River Champlain established a colony in what is now Nova Scotia and founded Quebec which later became the capital of New France. New France founded for fur trade. Those traders were known as coureurs de bois and lived among the Native Americans

18 The Spanish Spanish first to pursue colonization
Start in Caribbean, then Central and South America—most important was conquest of Aztecs by Cortez (1521) and Incas by Pizzaro (1531) First permanent colonies in what will become United States are founded by Spain St. Augustine (Florida) is founded (1565) to protect Spanish treasure fleets

19 Spanish empire by the 1600’s consisted of the
part of North America Central America Caribbean Islands Much of South America.

20 First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Cortes conquered Aztec Empire in and took control of modern day Mexico. vs. Hernando Cortés Montezuma II

21 England Takes an Interest in America
Changes in England lead to interest in colonization Religious changes – Protestant Reformation Economic changes – tenant farmers pushed off land to make room for raising sheep to support demand for wool Joint-stock companies founded to establish colonies as new markets for surplus wool

22 F/I War 1750

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24 Why do England and Spain want the Americas so much?
England was now a protestant country and Spain was Catholic Spain tried to stop the spread of Protestantism to the Netherlands and the Dutch rebelled. England came to the aid of the Dutch against Spain. Queen Elizabeth I allowed privateers to attack Spanish ships. American colonies were needed as bases to attack Spanish in the Caribbean.

25 Early American Colonies
New England Mid-Atlantic Southern

26 TYPES OF ENGLISH COLONIES
CHARTER - GRANT OF LAND TO A BUSINESS PROPRIETARY - GRANT OF LAND TO INDIVIDUAL ROYAL KING APPOINTS GOVERNOR – RETAINS CONTROL COLONIES ARE BASED ON TRADE / AGRICULTURE

27 NEW ENGLAND COLONIES

28 Pilgrims? vs. Puritans?

29 Plymouth Founded by Separatists who had broken from the Church of England. They were known as pilgrims The pilgrims had originally gone to Holland but came on to America. Settled in Plymouth in 1620. Led by William Bradford. Survived thanks to a native named Squanto who taught them to survive off the land.

30 Massachusetts Bay Colony
Founded by those Puritans who had remained in the Church of England and tried to reform it. Left England because of persecution and depression in wool industry Started by John Winthrop and other wealthy Puritans who held stock in the Mass. Bay Co. As conditions in England got worse had a Great Migration – by 1643 had population of 20,000.

31 Laws were made by a General Court made up of ‘freemen” –stockholders in the company
Later became a representative assembly All colonists were required to attend church Church was supported by taxes and regulated people’s moral behavior People whose religious beliefs differed from the majority were called heretics and were considered a threat to the community.

32 Rhode Island Started by Roger Williams who had been banished from the Massachusetts colony Founded the town of Providence Anne Hutchinson founded the town of Portsmouth when she was branded a heretic in Massachusetts and banished from the colony. The towns of Newport and Warwick were also started by people who were banished from Massachusetts. The colony’s charter included a total separation of church and state.

33 Connecticut Founded by Thomas Hooker who left Massachusetts because he opposed the policy of allowing only church members to vote. Constitution of the colony was called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut which was the first written constitution in the colonies.

34 The Mayflower

35 The Mayflower Compact November 11, 1620

36 Plymouth Colony William Bradford
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37 John Winthrop – Massachusetts Bay Colony
“We shall be as a city on a hill..”

38 Growth of the Colonies: 1690

39 Puritan “Rebels” Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson

40 New England Colonies, 1650

41 MIDDLE COLONIES New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
A combination of the New England and Southern Colonies

42 PENNSYLVANIA Founded by William Penn in 1680.
He was a Quaker and intended the area to be a refuge for Quakers. Quakers had religious beliefs based on the idea that religion was a personal experience and churches and ministers weren’t necessary. They also were pacificists which meant they opposed war or violence as a means to settling conflicts.

43 Everyone in the colony had religious and political freedom.
Had a peace treaty with the local natives. Founded Philadelphia ‘The City of Brotherly Love” as its capital. Had a charter that allowed for a legislative assembly. Anyone who had 50 acres and were Christian had the right to vote. Penn bought the land south of Pennsylvania and it later became the colony of Delaware.

44 SOUTHERN COLONIES Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina,
South Carolina, Georgia

45 Southern Colonies Virginia was a land grant
The land south of Virginia was given to the king’s friends and political allies. The land was known as Carolina and later developed as two separate regions – North Carolina and South Carolina.

46 <iframe width="640" height="390" src="//www. youtube
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47 SOUTH CAROLINA Originally SC grew indigo and rice
CASH CROP – COTTON & TOBACCO – discovered by John Rolfe PLANTATIONS REQUIRE LARGE TRACTS OF LAND SLAVERY BY THE MID 1600s SELF SUFFICIENT INDIVIDUALS

48 Wet climate of South Carolina (and Georgia) made
rice and indigo important crops. North Carolina also produced tar, pitch, and turpentine South’s reliance on “staple crops” or ones in large demand gave rise to the plantation system Indentured servants, or people who couldn’t afford to pay their own way to the new world agreed to work for plantation owners for a certain number of years (usually 7) gave way to slavery in the South Because most of these plantations were along waterways the South did not develop major centers of commerce as did the North.

49 VIRGINIA A joint stock company which makes it a charter
Established in 1607 by the Virginia Company, Mostly men were sent. First successful English settlement was Jamestown Instituted the headright system to attract people to settle there – promised 50 acres of land to those who would settle the colony.

50 Jamestown Settlement

51 Chesapeake Bay

52 Jamestown Settlement, 1607

53 Jamestown Housing

54 Jamestown Chapel, 1611

55 Jamestown Fort, 1609

56 Jamestown Settlement (Computer Generated)

57 Captain John Smith

58 Tobacco Plant Main cash crop in Virginia ,
Maryland, and North Carolina because of popularity in England

59 Early Colonial Tobacco
1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco. 1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco. 1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco. 1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.

60 Tobacco Prices:

61 Indentured Servitude

62 Virginia House of Burgesses
Willamsburg, VA Virginia House of Burgesses , Established in 1619- First elected representative Assembly in the American colonies

63 17c Population in the Chesapeake

64 Population of Chesapeake Colonies: 1610-1750

65 Colonization of Maryland

66 Societies & Economies Divine, America Past & Present 7e 29

67 SECTIONALISM EACH SECTION OF ENGLISH COLONIES DEVELOP
THEIR OWN IDENTITY NEW ENGLAND PURITAN INFLUENCE TOWN MEETING VILLAGE GREEN SEP OF CHURCH & STATE SETTLERS LIVE IN GROUPS – FARM OUTSIDE


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