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1 Seminar on Catering for Learner Diversity for English Teachers at Primary Level 10 March, 2006 English Language Education Section, Curriculum Development.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Seminar on Catering for Learner Diversity for English Teachers at Primary Level 10 March, 2006 English Language Education Section, Curriculum Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Seminar on Catering for Learner Diversity for English Teachers at Primary Level 10 March, 2006 English Language Education Section, Curriculum Development Institute, EDB

2 2 What does it mean by catering for learner diversity?

3

4 4 A is quiet in class while B is talkative. How are students different from one another? A complains about his group members while B leads a group discussion. A works hard because she enjoys English activities while B works hard for high marks. A can pronounce a word quickly by chunking the syllables while B can finish reading a passage quickly. In acquiring new words, A learns through songs whereas B learns through doing crossword puzzles. A has got problems with spelling while B has difficulty pronouncing /l/ and /r/ sounds. A likes animals while B likes car racing. Learner Diversity In face of a problem, A frets about the problem while B tries to solve it. 3. Personality 6. Intellectual & Emotional Development 7. Attitudinal & Social Maturity 4. Motivation 5. Ability1. Learning Style 2. (Learning) needs 8. Interests

5 5 What is the meaning of Catering for Learner Diversity? Even out abilities and performances Stretch the potential of all students X 

6 6 What have you done to cater for learner diversity? –Re-teaching part of a lesson? Giving extended tasks? –Teaching students how to do assignments? –Assigning supplementary/additional exercises to provide more practice (e.g. self-designed, adapted/ taken from resources available on the market)? –Drilling for tests and examinations? –Providing individual help/ coaching? –Conferencing with students? Are they effective?

7 7 Catering for Learner Diversity What?How? Why? We believe there is a need to stretch the potentials of every student.

8 8 Catering for Learner Diversity Why? We believe there is a need to stretch the potentials of every student. How? What? Learning Targets and Objectives: Language forms and functions Skills and strategies Attitudes Curriculum Framework

9 9 English Language Curriculum Framework English Language Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 – Primary 6) (2004)

10 10 to use English to think and communicate to use English to acquire, develop and apply knowledge to use English to respond and give expression to experience  Text types  Vocabulary  Language items  Communicative functions  Four language skills  Language development strategies

11 11 Catering for Learner Diversity Why?What? Learning Targets and Objectives: Language forms and functions Skills and strategies Attitudes Curriculum Framework We believe there is a need to stretch the potentials of every student. How? Learning and Teaching Materials Learning and Teaching Strategies Assessment for Learning Curriculum Adaptation: Intervention & Enrichment

12 The Roles of Intervention & Enrichment Programmes School-based English Language Curriculum Components: General English Programme Reading Workshops Intervention Programme Enrichment Programme

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14 “The Enrichment Programme is designed to extend the more able learners through different activities conducted during or after class time, inside or outside the school premises.” From p.101 of the English Language Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) (CDC, 2004)

15 Intervention Programme “The Intervention Programme is a short, focused programme which provides timely support for learners who have exhibited difficulties in learning English.” From p.100 of the English Language Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) (CDC, 2004)

16 Short, Focused & Timely Additional opportunities Additional time Focused learning

17 Suggested Mode of an Intervention Programme Small group size e.g. 1 teacher to 8 learners Regular, additional meetings for a short period of time e.g. two 35-minute sessions per week

18 Incorporating Intervention Programme Part of the remedial programme Additional support programme

19 Remedial English Programme School English Programme Incorporating Intervention Programme

20 Remedial English Programme Int. Prog. Int. Prog. School English Programme Incorporating Intervention Programme Intervention/ Support Programme Please refer to Appendices 7&8 in English Language Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 to 6)

21 First TermSecond Term Intervention Programme 6 Intervention Programme 4 Intervention Programme 5 Intervention Programme 1 Intervention Programme 2 Intervention Programme 3Intervention Programme 5 Intervention Programme 3 Intervention Programme 4 Intervention Programme 1 Intervention Programme 2 Intervention Programme 4 Intervention Programme 3 Intervention Programme 1 Intervention Programme 2 Intervention Programme 3Intervention Programme 1 Intervention Programme 5 Intervention Programme 3 Intervention Programme 4 Intervention Programme 1 Intervention Programme 2 Remedial English Programme

22 Planning an Intervention Programme 1.Data Collection 2.Identification of Learning ProblemsIdentification of Learning Problems 3.Identification of Causes of ProblemsIdentification of Causes of Problems 4.Identification of Teaching Focus & Designing Tasks/ActivitiesIdentification of Teaching Focus & Designing Tasks/Activities 5.Assessment for LearningAssessment for Learning

23 Planning an Intervention Programme 2. Identification of Learning Problems Some Young Children’s Learning Problems My mother is a cooker. faimly bog I sit before May. a hair in Monday He runs very fastly. Being impatient and restless Q:Can you see a duck? Where is it? A: See a duck where is it. There is two apples. The fir day. I nike i-kim. Working very slowly, producing messy work... He is a long man. paly I low. My mother is a cooker. faimly bog a hair in Monday Open the light. There is two apples. The fir day. I nike i-kim. The rain is very big. I low. My mother is a cooker. faimly bog I sit behind May. a hair in Monday Being reluctant to speak up/ read aloud Being impatient and restless Q:Can you see a duck? Where is it? A: See a duck where is it. There is two apples. The fir day. I nike i-kim. Working very slowly, producing messy work... He is a long man. paly I low. palybogfaimly a hair in Monday Q:Can you see a duck? Where is it? A: See a duck where is it. There is two apples. The fir day. I nike i-kim. I low. The rain is very big. He runs very fastly. Open the light. I sit before May. He is a long man. My mother is a cooker.

24 My mother is a cooker. faimly bog I sit behind May. a hair in Monday Being reluctant to speak up/ read aloud Being impatient and restless Q:Can you see a duck? Where is it? A: See a duck where is it. There is two apples. The fir day. I nike i-kim. Working very slowly, producing messy work... He is a long man. paly I low. My mother is a cooker. faimly bog I sit behind May. a hair in Monday Being reluctant to speak up/ read aloud Being impatient and restless Q:Can you see a duck? Where is it? A: See a duck where is it. There is two apples. The fir day. I nike i-kim. Working very slowly, producing messy work... He is a long man. paly I low. paly a hair in Monday bogfaimly Q:Can you see a duck? Where is it? A: See a duck where is it. There is two apples. The fir day. I nike i-kim. I low. I sit before May. He is a long man. My mother is a cooker. The rain is very big. He runs very fastly. Open the light. Spelling Pronunciation Language Forms and Functions Vocabulary Concepts and Meanings Areas of Learning Problems

25 Planning an Intervention Programme 3. Identification of Causes of ProblemsProblems Inadequate exposure and re-visiting Inadequate and inappropriate practice Lack of scaffolding in tasks/activities Lack of effective learning skills and strategies Repeated failures/lack of motivation Mismatch of learning/teaching styles

26 How to bridge the learning/teaching gap? Expected Performance Learner’s Performance Learning objectives and teaching styles

27 Planning an Intervention Programme 4. Identification of Teaching Focus & Designing Tasks/ Activities Bear in mind the causes of problems identified Build on what learners are able to do Set clear manageable learning/ teaching objectives Anticipate problem areas and adjust teaching strategies accordingly Adapt learning and teaching materials for effective learning, understanding, practices and application

28 28 Assessments in Schools Assessment Tasks Oral Presentations Portfolios Class Discussions Homework Extended Tasks Learning Tasks & Activities Projects Shared Writing Planning an Intervention Programme 5. Assessment for learning

29 29 C.C.C. Heep Woh Primary School (PM) Module: Food and Drink Ms P L Lee, Candy

30 30 T: Is there any milk? S: Yes, there is some milk here. Statements (Verb + UN) FOOD BINGO (UN) Ice-cream sugar BINGO! cheese ice-cream butter sugar oilmilk juice water chocolate

31 31 T: Are there any oranges? S: Yes, there are some oranges here. Statements (Verb + CN) FOOD BINGO (CN) oranges apples pineapples bananas sausagescarrots biscuits eggs hotdogs

32 32 Statements (Verb + UN) FOOD BINGO (UN) Ice-cream sugar cheese ice-cream buttero_ _m_ _ _ juice chocolate w_ _ _ _

33 33 T: Is there any milk? S: Yes, there is some milk here. Some sugar Some cheese Some oil Some juice Some ice-cream Statements (Verb + UN) FOOD BINGO (UN)

34 34 UN water flour bread CN cakes sandwiches sweets biscuits UN juice chocolate jam CN eggs pineapples apples sugar B’s Cupboard Ice-cream Noodles cheese butter milk ice-cream oranges carrotsbananas sausages salt sugar oil hamburgers hotdogs noodles FOOD HUNT A’s Fridge B: No, there isn’t any water in my cupboard. A: Are there any cakes in your cupboard? B: No, there aren’t any cakes in my cupboard. A: Is there any water in your cupboard? B: Is there any juice in your fridge? B: Are there any eggs in your fridge? A: No, there isn’t any juice in my fridge. A: No, there aren’t any eggs in my fridge. Q + Neg: statement (‘any’)

35 35 Student D Student C Student AStudent B Is / Are there any …? No, there isn’t / aren’t any … Is / Are there any …? Yes, there is / are some …

36 36 Student A Fridge A: Is there any …? C: … A: Are there any …? C: … A: Yes, there is some … C: … A: Yes, there are some … Cupboard A: … C: Yes, there is some … A: … C: Yes, there are some … C: Is there any …? A: … C: Are there any …? A: … Student C

37 37 Textbook materials e.g. Is/Are there any...? Yes, there is/are some ______. No, there isn’t/aren’t any ______. Cupboard Food items Fridge Food items Find out what is in the cupboard and the fridge. Learning and Teaching Materials

38 38 Learning and Teaching Materials Supermarket A: Is/Are there any _____ in the _____ section? B: Yes, there is/are some ____. No, there isn’t/aren’t any ____. Food Hunt in Fridges & Cupboards = Cupboard and Fridge A: Is/Are there any _____? B: Yes, there is/are some ____. No, there isn’t/aren’t any ____. + Adaptations made to textbook materials

39 39 Food Hunt in Fridges & Cupboards A: Are there any tomatoes and carrots in your fridge? B: Yes, there are some tomatoes, but there aren’t any carrots. A: We need some carrots. We don’t need any ______. Food for party biscuits noodles tomatoes and carrots cheese and ham juice and chocolate milk Shopping list... Learning and Teaching Materials Party Time! some carrots  Meaningful context Information gap Hands-on activities My fridge

40 40 Learning and Teaching Materials Different food items for different learners

41 41 Helping Teddy and Piggy to eat right Teddy Piggy & Learning and Teaching Materials

42 42 BreakfastLunch TeaDinner

43 43 Piggy eats _______ dairy food. Piggy eats _______ sweet food. Piggy eats _______ cheeseburgers. Piggy eats _______ vegetables. Piggy eats _______fruit. a little a lot of some AMOUNT Plenty of A lot of Some A little too many cheeseburgers. too little fruit. a lot of plenty of too much dairy food. too much sweet food. Is it a healthy diet? It is an unhealthy diet. Representing graphically the differences in quantities Structuring presentation to highlight concept Highlighting the target language items

44 44 Uncountablenouns Countable nouns Piggy eats too much: chocolate sweet food Piggy drinks too much: milk Piggy eats too little: fruit Piggy eats too many: cheeseburgers hotdogs Using colour and layout to compare and contrast

45 45 Helping Teddy and Piggy to Eat Right Homework for consolidation Learning and Teaching Materials

46 46

47 47 Specific guidelines focus attention on application of food pyramid Box helps students decide whether the item is a countable or uncountable noun

48 48 Learning and Teaching Materials Divide/ condense units of learning into manageable components Adapt coursebook materials (amount, range, sequence, varieties, graphics) Design extended tasks/materials to draw on and expand learners’ existing knowledge and skillsextended Include specific guidelines to focus attention on concepts Curriculum Adaptation Curriculum Framework How?

49 49 Learning and Teaching Strategies Assess retention of previous learning and adjust strategies Structure teacher demonstration before participation Apply effective questioning techniques Curriculum Adaptation Curriculum Framework How?

50 50 Reading Traffic-light Sandwiches and understanding story structure Learning and Teaching Strategies

51 51 What do we always find in stories? PeopleCharacters Time Place Problem Events Setting SolutionEnding BeginningMiddle

52 52 Traffic-light Sandwiches Read P Set questions to enable pupils to understand the characters, setting and problem of this story.

53 53 Characters are the main characters in the story?Who BEGINNING Setting Wher e were they? are the people in the story?Who Whendid the story take place? Wher e did they want to go? Whendid the story happen? Howdid they feel? Howdid they feel? Howdo you know?

54 54 BEGINNING How did Felix and Flora feel? (P.8) Let us think. Who  Felix and Flora Characters & Problem Did Felix and Flora like Hong Kong? How do you know? (P.9, P.23) Do you think they would still go to Zorb for their holidays? Why?

55 55 What do we always find in stories? PeopleCharacters Time Place Problem Events Setting SolutionEnding BeginningMiddle

56 56 Events How did Felix and Flora solve their problem? PLACE 1 Central PLACE 4 PLACE 2 PLACE 3 TRANSPORT 1 TRANSPORT 2 TRANSPORT 3

57 57 What do the four events tell you about traffic-light sandwiches? Let us think.

58 58 Structuring questions to facilitate reading for meaning What do the four events tell you about traffic-light sandwiches? How many kinds of transport did Felix & Flora use? How many places did they try? How many times did they hear the answer ‘no’? Knowledge & Comprehension Do you think they should spend so much time looking for the sandwiches? Why? Why did they have to look for the traffic-light sandwiches? Evaluation Analysis Application If they could not find the sandwiches in Yuen Long, what could they do?

59 59 MESSAGE Traffic-light sandwiches are VERY important.

60 60 Learning and Teaching Strategies Assess retention of previous learning and adjust strategies Structure teacher demonstration before participation Apply effective questioning techniquesquestioning techniques Curriculum Adaptation Curriculum Framework How?

61 61 Assessment for learning Curriculum Adaptation Curriculum Framework How? Assessment for learningAssessment of learning What to focus For improvement Identifying learners’ strengths and weaknesses Setting different targets for different learners Acknowledging pupils’ efforts and achievements Providing quality feedback for learners, which entails timely support and enrichment, and helping teachers review the learning objectives, lesson plans and teaching strategies For accountability Reporting learners’ attainment against the learners’ targets and objectives Including questions of different difficulty levels in summative assessment papers to cater for different learners

62 62

63 63 What have you done to cater for learner diversity? –Re-teaching part of a lesson? Giving extended tasks? –Teaching students how to do assignments? –Assigning supplementary/additional exercises to provide more practice (e.g. self-designed, adapted/ taken from resources available on the market)? –Drilling for tests and examinations? –Providing individual help/ coaching? –Conferencing with students? How will you modify the way you cater for learner diversity?

64 64 Brualdi, Amy C. Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s Theory. ERIC, ED Dickinson, Dee. “Technology that Enhances Multiple Intelligences.” URL: (13 Oct. 2004).http://www.america-tomorrow.com/ati/mi1.htm Central Health Education Unit, Department of Health Curriculum Development Council. English Language Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-Primary 6) 2004 Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2002). Differentiated instructional Strategies. California: Corwin Press, INC. Heacox, D. (2002). Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom. MN: Free Spirit Publishing Inc. Reid, J.M. (ed). Understanding Learning Styles in the Second Language Classroom. Prentice-Hall, Inc.: New Jersey, References

65 65 Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Books Inc. Gardner, H., & Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, 18(8), 4-9. Curriculum Development Institute, Education and Manpower Bureau. Interim Report on “Study on Strategies to Cope with Individual Differences in Academic Abilities of Primary School Pupils” ( 個別差異發展及研究報告系列中期報告 ) URL: (2 Dec, 2005) Further Reading

66 66 Thank You


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