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Chapter 10: Acids and Bases When we mix aqueous solutions of ionic salts, we are not mixing single components, but rather a mixture of the ions in the.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Acids and Bases When we mix aqueous solutions of ionic salts, we are not mixing single components, but rather a mixture of the ions in the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10: Acids and Bases When we mix aqueous solutions of ionic salts, we are not mixing single components, but rather a mixture of the ions in the solid –The ionic solid dissolves in the water We call a compound that dissolves in water soluble and if it doesn’t, it is insoluble

2 Electrolytes When an ionic compound dissolves in water, it forms an electrolyte solution –The compound may be a strong electrolyte if it dissolves completely or a weak electrolyte if it only partially dissolves (doesn’t exist entirely as ions in solution)

3 Precipitation Reactions A precipitation reaction takes place when solutions of 2 strong electrolyte solutions are mixed and react to form an insoluble solid

4 Complete and Net Ionic Equations AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) --> AgCl (s) + NaNO 3 (aq) A Complete Ionic Equation shows all of the ions and solids in a precipitation reaction Complete Ionic Equation: Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) --> AgCl (s) + Na + (aq) + NO - 3 (aq)

5 Complete and Net Ionic Equations A Net Ionic Equation removes the spectator ions from the complete ionic equation –Spectator Ions don’t do anything in the reaction and are found on both sides of the arrow. Complete Ionic Equation: Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) --> AgCl (s) + Na + (aq) + NO - 3 (aq) Net Ionic Equation: Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) --> AgCl (s) AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) --> AgCl (s) + NaNO 3 (aq) 

6 Acids and Bases There are several possible definitions of acids and bases, but we’ll start with the Bronsted definition initially A Bronsted Acid is a Proton Donor A Bronsted Base is a Proton Acceptor Acids are only acids once they donate their proton to an accepting base Bases are only bases once they accept a proton from a donor

7 HCl and Phase In the gas phase, HCl is just another molecule with 2 atoms Once we add the molecule to water however…

8 Strong and Weak Acids HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) --> H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) The reaction goes almost to completion (K is very ____), so we only draw a single arrow. –HCl is a strong acid HCN (aq) + H 2 O (l) --> H 3 O + (aq) + CN - (aq) The K value for this reaction is low, so the reaction favors the _______ –HCN is a weak acid A Strong Acid is fully deprotonated in solution A Weak Acid is only partially deprotonated in solution

9 Strong and Weak Bases A Bronsted base is a proton acceptor This means it has a lone pair to accept the proton (more on this in a little bit…) Let’s look at CaO: CaO (aq) + H 2 O (l) --> Ca(OH) 2 (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + O 2- (aq) + H 2 O (l) --> Ca 2+ (aq) + 2OH - (aq) O 2- (aq) + H 2 O (l) --> 2OH - (aq) The K value for this reaction is very high and oxide ions are strong bases in water

10 Strong and Weak Bases NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) --> NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) NH3 is electrically neutral, and it has a lone pair to accept the proton, but the K value for the reaction is very low Ammonia is a weak base All amines, organic derivatives of ammonia, are weak bases

11 Conjugate Acids and Bases The products of proton transfer may also react with water HCN (aq) + H 2 O (l)  CN - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) The cyanide ion may take/accept a proton to reform HCN –This is called a Conjugate Base The HCN formed when CN- accepted a proton is called the Conjugate Acid of CN -

12 The Conjugate Base of an acid is the species left when the acid donates a proton The Conjugate Acid is the species formed when the base accepts a proton

13 Lewis Acids and Lewis Bases Because of the sheer possibilities that exist in the chemical world, we need to expand our definition of acids and bases to include more than just protons. A Lewis Acid is an electron pair acceptor A Lewis Base is an electron pair donor

14 Lewis Acids and Bases We’ll use Lewis structures to show how electron pairs move in the reactions of Lewis acids and bases. Oxide anion reacting with water The oxide anion is a Lewis base (electron pair donor) Ammonia reacting with water The lone pair in Nitrogen grabs a water proton Carbon dioxide accepts an electron pair from the oxygen of water

15 Acidic, Basic and Amphoteric Oxides 1.Acidic oxides react with water to form a Bronsted acid CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l)  H 2 CO 3 (aq) Acidic oxides are molecular compounds of nonmetal oxides 2.Basic oxides react with water to form a Bronsted base CaO (s) + H 2 O (l) --> Ca(OH) 2 (aq) Basic oxides are ionic compounds of metals 3.Oxides of the metalloids are amphoteric meaning that they react with both acids and bases Al 2 O 3 (s) + 6HCl (aq) --> 2AlCl 3 + 3H 2 O (l) Al 2 O 3 (s) + 2NaOH (aq) --> 2Na[Al(OH) 4 ] (aq)

16 Autoprotolysis Water is both an acid and a base H 2 O (l) + O 2- (g) --> 2OH - (water as an acid) H 2 O (l) + HCl (aq) --> H 3 O + + OH - (water as a base) Water is Amphiprotic meaning that it can act as a proton donor or proton acceptor

17 Autoprotolysis Because water is amphiprotic, proton transfer between water molecules spontaneously happens –In fact, water is never just H 2 O 2H 2 O (l)  H 3 O + + OH - This is autoprotolysis We can describe K as:

18 Autoprotolysis K w = [H 3 O + ][OH - ] From experiments, we can measure the concentrations of H 3 O + and OH - and find them to be equal and 1.0x10 -7 M K w = [H 3 O + ][OH - ]=(1.0x10 -7 )(1.0x10 -7 ) = 1.0x K w is still an equilibrium constant, so whatever we do to one product, the other will compensate to maintain K w = 1.0x 

19 The pH Scale pH = -log[H 3 O + ] In a pure water sample, the [H 3 O + ] = 1.0x10 -7 M and the pH is 7.00 At values lower than 7, the [H 3 O + ] is increasing At values higher than 7, the [H 3 O + ] is decreasing (and the pOH is increasing)


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