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Medical Surgical Nursing

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1 Medical Surgical Nursing
Megan Rohm, MNc, BSN, RN-BC Today: Introduce ourselves Introduce the course -Syllabus Fluids and Electrolytes

2 Medical Surgical Nursing
Unit One Topics: Fluids and Electrolytes Immune System

3 Unit 1 Fluid and Electrolytes
MeganRohm, BSN,RN Acknowledgements to Elsevier

4 Unit 1 Fluid and Electrolytes
Objectives: Explain how water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent List, describe and compare the body fluid compartments Discuss active and passive transport processes and give examples of each Discuss the role of specific electrolytes in maintaining homeostasis Describe the cause and effect of deficits and excesses of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, & phosphorus Discuss the role of the nursing process in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balances. Discuss how the very young, very old, and obese patient are at risk for fluid volume deficit.

5 Homeostasis State of equilibrium in body
Naturally maintained by adaptive responses Body fluids and electrolytes are maintained within narrow limits

6 Water Content of the Body
60% of body weight in adult 45% to 55% in older adult 70% to 80% in infants Varies with gender, body mass, and age

7 Fluid Balance

8 Compartments Intracellular fluid (ICF)
_______ ______ ______cell membrane Extracellular fluid (ECF) Interstitial = tissue ______________________capillary membrane Intravascular (plasma)

9 Fluid Compartments of the Body

10 Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
One third of body fluid 3 major components Interstitial fluid Intravascular Transcellular fluid over or across the cells

11 Interstitial Component
Fluid btwn cells Surrounds cells Transport medium for nutrients, gases, waste products and other substances btwn blood and body cells Also acts as a back up fluid reservoir


13 Fluid Regulation How does movement from space to space occur?
Diffusion Osmosis Filtration Active transport

14 Fluid Regulation Diffusion
Movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration in a solution and or across a permeable membrane This movement occurs until near equal state

15 Fluid Regulation Osmosis Now with water.


17 Osmosis VS. Diffusion Osmosis Diffusion Low to high Water potential
High to low Movement of particles

18 Fluid Regulation Filtration
Water pushing against the confining walls of a space

19 Electrolytes Substances whose molecules dissociate into ions (charged particles) when placed into water Cations: positively charged Anions: negatively charged

20 Electrolyte Composition
ICF Prevalent cation is K+ Prevalent anion is PO43- ECF Prevalent cation is Na+ Prevalent anion is Cl-

21 Regulation of Electrolytes
Active transport Allows molecules to move against concentration and osmotic pressure to areas of higher concentration

22 Active Transport: Sodium–Potassium Pump
Fig. 17-5 Copyright © 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

23 Fluid Movement in Capillaries
Amount and direction of movement determined by Capillary hydrostatic pressure Plasma oncotic pressure Interstitial hydrostatic pressure Interstitial oncotic pressure

24 Fluid Exchange Between Capillary and Tissue
Fig. 17-8

25 Osmolality Concentration of body fluids- affects movement of fluid by osmosis. Reflects hydration status Measured by serum and urine Solutes measured-mainly urea, glucose, & sodium

26 Osmolality Increases in serum level Serum value 280-300 mOsm/kg
Urine value mOsm/kg Increases in serum level Free water loss Elevated Na Hyperglycemia Uremia

27 Fluid Volume Shifts Normally fluid shifts btwn intracellular and extracellular compartments to maintain equilibrium btwn spaces Fluid not lost from body, but not available for use in either compartment- considered third-space fluid shift (third-spacing) Enters interstitial compartment

28 Causes of Third-Spacing
Burns Peritonitis Bowel obstruction Massive bleeding into joint or cavity Liver or renal failure Lowered plasma proteins Increased capillary permeability

29 Assessment of Third-Spacing
More difficult – fluid sequestered in deeper structures Signs/Symptoms Decreased urine output with adequate intake Increased HR Decreased BP Increased weight Pitting edema, ascites


31 Phases of Third-Spacing
Loss phase Lasts hours Symptoms of FVD Reabsorption phase Fluid gradually reabsorbed after problem subsides FVO possible Monitor VS, I&O, Wt, and breath sounds

32 Treatment Treat underlying cause if possible Close observation of VS
Monitor I & O more frequently Daily weights Measure abdominal girth in ascites Measure extremities if necessary Monitor lab values albumin level important

33 Treatment Goals Stabilized I & O Stabilized weight
VS within normal range Resolution of third-spacing

34 Extracellular Fluid Volume Imbalances
ECF volume deficit (hypovolemia) Abnormal loss of normal body fluids (diarrhea, fistula drainage, hemorrhage), inadequate intake, or plasma-to-interstitial fluid shift Treatment: replace water and electrolytes with balanced IV solutions

35 Fluid Volume Deficit Hypovolemia
Abnormally low volume of body fluid in intravascular and/or interstitial compartments Causes Vomiting Diarrhea Fever Excess sweating Burns Diabetes insipidus Inadequate intake Hemorrhage Overuse of diuretics Third spacing

36 Fluid volume deficit What happens
Output > Intake Water extracted from ECF ECF hypertonic (water moves out of cell  cell dehydration) + osmotic pressure increased (stimulates thirst preceptor in hypothalamus) ICF hypotonic with decreased osmotic pressure  posterior pituitary secretes more ADH Decreased ECF volume adrenal glands secrete Aldosterone


38 Signs and Symptoms Acute weight loss Decreased skin turgor Oliguria
Concentrated urine Weak, rapid pulse Capillary filling time elongated Decreased BP Increased pulse Sensations of thirst, weakness, dizziness, muscle cramps

39 Labs Increased HCT Increased BUN Increased serum osmolality
Increased urine osmolality Increased specific gravity Decreased urine volume, dark color

40 Significant Points Dehydration – one of most common disturbances in infants and children Additional S/S Sunken eyeballs Depressed fontanels Significant wt loss

41 Significant Points Older Adult
Vein filling better indicator than skin turgor Have additional health problems Take various medications May ↓ intake to prevent incontinence

42 Nursing Management Nursing Diagnoses
Hypovolemia Deficient fluid volume Decreased cardiac output Potential complication: hypovolemic shock

43 Interventions Major goal prevent or correct abnormal fluid volume status before ARF occurs Encourage fluids IV fluids Isotonic solutions (0.9% NS or LR) until BP back to normal, then hypotonic (0.45% NS) Monitor I & O, urine specific gravity, DAILY WEIGHTS

44 Interventions Monitor skin turgor Monitor VS and mental status Goal:
Normal skin turgor, increased UOP with normal specific gravity, normal VS, clear sensorium, good oral intake of fluids, labs WNL

45 Regulation of Water Balance
Antidieuretic Hormone (ADH) Hold on to water Aldosterone Increases Na+ retention




49 Where is a lot of this happening in the body?

50 Renal Regulation regulating fluid and electrolyte balance
Adjusting urine volume Selective reabsorption of water and electrolytes Renal tubules are sites of action of ADH and aldosterone

51 Effects of Stress on F&E Balance

52 Gastrointestinal Regulation
Oral intake accounts for most water Small amounts of water are eliminated by gastrointestinal tract in feces Diarrhea and vomiting can lead to significant fluid and electrolyte loss

53 Extracellular Fluid Volume Imbalances
Fluid volume excess (hypervolemia) Excessive intake of fluids, abnormal retention of fluids (CHF), or interstitial-to-plasma fluid shift Treatment: remove fluid without changing electrolyte composition or osmolality of ECF

54 Causes Excessive isotonic or hypotonic IV fluids Heart failure
Renal failure- urinary Liver failure, cirrhosis Long-term use corticosteroids

55 Signs/Symptoms Headache, confusion, lethargy Edema
Distended neck veins Bounding pulse, Polyuria Dyspnea, crackles, pulmonary edema Wt. Gain Seizures, coma

56 Nursing Management Nursing Diagnoses
Hypervolemia Excess fluid volume Ineffective airway clearance Risk for impaired skin integrity Disturbed body image Potential complications: pulmonary edema, ascites

57 Nursing Management Nursing Implementation
Monitor cardiovascular changes Assess respiratory status and monitor changes Daily weights Skin assessment

58 Nursing Management Nursing Implementation
Neurologic function LOC PERLA Voluntary movement of extremities Muscle strength Reflexes

59 Electrolyte Imbalances
Refer to charts available on Angel

60 Electrolyte Disorders Signs and Symptoms
Excess Deficit Sodium (Na) Hypernatremia Thirst CNS deterioration Increased interstitial fluid Hyponatremia Potassium (K) Hyperkalemia Ventricular fibrillation ECG changes CNS changes Hypokalemia Bradycardia

61 Electrolyte Disorders Signs and Symptoms
Excess Deficit Calcium (Ca) Hypercalcemia Thirst CNS deterioration Increased interstitial fluid Hypocalcemia Tetany Chvostek’s, Trousseau’s signs Muscle twitching CNS changes ECG changes Magnesium (Mg) Hypermagnesemia Loss of deep tendon reflexes (DTRs) Depression of CNS Depression of neuromuscular function Hypomagnesemia Hyperactive DTRs

62 Sodium Normal 135-145 mEq/L Plays a major role in
ECF volume and concentration Generation and transmission of nerve impulses Acid–base balance

63 Differential Assessment of ECF Volume

64 Hypernatremia Elevated serum sodium occurring with water loss or sodium gain Causes hyperosmolality leading to cellular dehydration Primary protection is thirst from hypothalamus

65 Signs/Symptoms Early: Generalized muscle weakness, faintness, muscle fatigue, HA Moderate: Confusion, thirst Late: Edema, restlessness, thirst, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, irritability, seizures, possible coma Severe: Permanent brain damage, hypertension, tachycardia, N & V

66 Nursing Management Nursing Diagnoses
Risk for injury Potential complication: seizures and coma leading to irreversible brain damage

67 Nursing Management Nursing Implementation
Treat underlying cause Free water to replace ECF volume If oral fluids cannot be ingested, IV solution of 5% dextrose in water or hypotonic saline (gradual) Diuretics

68 Hyponatremia Results from excess loss of Na containing fluids or from water excess: GI losses, diuretic therapy, severe renal dysfunction, severe diaphoreses, narcotic use Manifestations, S/S Confusion, nausea, vomiting, seizures, decreased BP, headache, muscle twitching, cramps

69 Nursing Management Nursing Diagnoses
Risk for injury Potential complication: severe neurologic changes

70 Nursing Management Nursing Implementation
Caused by water excess Fluid restriction is needed Severe symptoms (seizures) Give small amount of IV hypertonic saline solution (3% NaCl) Abnormal fluid loss Fluid replacement with sodium-containing solution

71 Potassium Normal 3.5-5.5 mEq/L Major ICF cation Necessary for
Transmission and conduction of nerve and muscle impulses Maintenance of cardiac rhythms Acid–base balance

72 Potassium Sources Fruits and vegetables (bananas and oranges)
Salt substitutes Potassium medications (PO, IV) Stored blood

73 Hyperkalemia High serum potassium caused by
Massive intake of K Impaired renal excretion Shift from ICF to ECF Common in massive cell destruction Burn, crush injury, or tumor lysis

74 Hyperkalemia Manifestations, S/S Weak or paralyzed skeletal muscles
ECG changes; Ventricular fibrillation or cardiac standstill Abdominal cramping or diarrhea


76 Nursing Management Nursing Diagnoses
Risk for injury Potential complication: dysrhythmias

77 Nursing Management Nursing Implementation
Eliminate oral and parenteral K intake Increase elimination of K (diuretics, dialysis, Kayexalate)

78 Nursing Management Nursing Implementation
Force K from ECF to ICF by IV insulin or sodium bicarbonate Reverse membrane effects of elevated ECF potassium by administering calcium gluconate IV

79 Hypokalemia Low serum potassium caused by
Abnormal losses of K+ via the kidneys or gastrointestinal tract Magnesium deficiency Metabolic alkalosis

80 Hypokalemia Manifestations Most serious are cardiac
Skeletal muscle weakness Weakness of respiratory muscles Decreased gastrointestinal motility


82 Nursing Management Nursing Diagnoses
Risk for injury Potential complication: dysrhythmias

83 Nursing Management Nursing Implementation
KCl supplements orally or IV Slowly K is an irritant Should not exceed 40 mEq/hr To prevent hyperkalemia and cardiac arrest

84 Nursing Management Nursing Implementation
Hypertonic glucose solution Monitor I&Os VS, cardiac rhythm Muscle strength Bowel sounds

85 Calcium Normal 4.5-5.5 mEq/L Obtained from ingested foods
More than 99% combined with phosphorus and concentrated in skeletal system the other 1% is in ECF and soft tissues

86 Calcium Bones are readily available store
Blocks sodium transport and stabilizes cell membrane

87 Calcium Functions Transmission of nerve impulses
Myocardial contractions Blood clotting Formation of teeth and bone Muscle contractions

88 Calcium Balance controlled by Parathyroid hormone Calcitonin Vitamin D

89 Hypercalcemia High serum calcium levels caused by
Hyperparathyroidism (two thirds of cases) Malignancy Vitamin D overdose Prolonged immobilization

90 Hypercalcemia Manifestations, S/S Decreased memory
Confusion, fatigue, coma Anorexia, constipation Muscle weakness, loss of muscle tone Polyuria & predisposes to renal calculi

91 Nursing Management Nursing Diagnoses
Risk for injury Potential complication: dysrhythmias death

92 Nursing Management Nursing Implementation
Excretion of Ca with loop diuretic Hydration with isotonic saline infusion Synthetic calcitonin Mobilization

93 Hypocalcemia Low serum Ca levels caused by Decreased production of PTH
Acute pancreatitis Multiple blood transfusions Alkalosis Decreased intake

94 Hypocalcemia Manifestations Positive Trousseau’s or Chvostek’s sign
Laryngeal stridor Dysphagia Tingling around the mouth or in the extremities

95 Tests for Hypocalcemia

96 Nursing Management Nursing Diagnoses
Risk for injury Potential complication: fracture or respiratory arrest

97 Nursing Management Nursing Implementation
Treat cause Oral or IV calcium supplements Not IM to avoid local reactions Treat pain and anxiety to prevent hyperventilation-induced respiratory alkalosis

98 Phosphate Primary anion in ICF
Essential to function of muscle, red blood cells, and nervous system Deposited with calcium for bone and tooth structure

99 Phosphate Involved in acid–base buffering system, ATP production, and cellular uptake of glucose Maintenance requires adequate renal functioning Essential to muscle, RBCs, and nervous system function

100 Hyperphosphatemia High serum PO43- caused by
Acute or chronic renal failure Chemotherapy Excessive ingestion of phosphate or vitamin D

101 Hyperphosphatemia Manifestations
Calcified deposition in soft tissue such as joints, arteries, skin, kidneys, and corneas Neuromuscular irritability and tetany

102 Hyperphosphatemia Management Identify and treat underlying cause
Restrict foods and fluids containing PO43- Adequate hydration and correction of hypocalcemic conditions

103 Hypophosphatemia Low serum PO43- caused by
Malnourishment/malabsorption Alcohol withdrawal Use of phosphate-binding antacids During parenteral nutrition with inadequate replacement

104 Hypophosphatemia Manifestations CNS depression Confusion
Muscle weakness and pain Dysrhythmias Cardiomyopathy

105 Hypophosphatemia Management Oral supplementation
Ingestion of foods high in PO43- IV administration of sodium or potassium phosphate

106 Magnesium 50% to 60% contained in bone
Coenzyme in metabolism of protein and carbohydrates Factors that regulate calcium balance appear to influence magnesium balance

107 Magnesium Acts directly on myoneural junction
Important for normal cardiac function

108 Hypermagnesemia High serum Mg caused by
Increased intake or ingestion of products containing magnesium when renal insufficiency or failure is present

109 Hypermagnesemia Manifestations Lethargy or drowsiness Nausea/vomiting
Impaired reflexes Respiratory and cardiac arrest

110 Hypermagnesemia Management Prevention Emergency treatment
IV CaCl or calcium gluconate Fluids to promote urinary excretion

111 Hypomagnesemia Low serum Mg caused by Prolonged fasting or starvation
Chronic alcoholism Fluid loss from gastrointestinal tract Prolonged parenteral nutrition without supplementation Diuretics

112 Hypomagnesemia Manifestations Confusion
Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes Tremors Seizures Cardiac dysrhythmias

113 Hypomagnesemia Management Oral supplements Increase dietary intake
Parenteral IV or IM magnesium when severe

114 IV Fluid Replacement Purposes Maintenance Replacement
When oral intake is not adequate Replacement When losses have occurred

115 IV Fluid Reference


117 IV Fluids Hypotonic More water than electrolytes
Pure water lyses RBCs Water moves from ECF to ICF by osmosis Usually maintenance fluids

118 IV Fluids Isotonic Expands only ECF No net loss or gain from ICF

119 IV Fluids Hypertonic Require frequent monitoring of
Initially expands and raises the osmolality of ECF when it shifts fluids from ICF & ECF into vascular component- expands blood volume Require frequent monitoring of Blood pressure Lung sounds Serum sodium levels

120 Normal Saline (NS) Isotonic No calories
30% stays in intravascular space

121 Normal Saline (NS) Expands IV volume Does not change ICF volume
Preferred fluid for immediate response Risk for fluid overload higher Does not change ICF volume Blood products Compatible with most medications

122 Lactated Ringer’s Isotonic More similar to plasma than NS Expands ECF
Has less NaCl Has K, Ca, PO43-, lactate (metabolized to HCO3-) Expands ECF

123 Plasma Expanders Stay in vascular space and increase osmotic pressure
Colloids (protein solutions) Packed RBCs Albumin Plasma

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