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Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation. Anatomy vs. Physiology  Anatomy- studies the structure of the body parts and their relationships to one another.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation. Anatomy vs. Physiology  Anatomy- studies the structure of the body parts and their relationships to one another."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

2 Anatomy vs. Physiology  Anatomy- studies the structure of the body parts and their relationships to one another (seen, felt, examined) Physiology- concerns the function of the body’s structural machinery (how parts work and carry out life sustaining activities)

3  Gross Anatomy- study of large body structures visible to the naked eye Regional- One region studied in detail Systemic- Study system by system Surface- How organs relate to the skin

4  Microscopic Anatomy- parts of the body too small to see with the naked eye (EX: thin slices of tissue) Cytology- study of cells Histology- study of tissue Developmental anatomy- changes that occur throughout life Embryology - changes that occur before birth (look at birth defects)

5 Tools to Study anatomy  Observation Manipulation Palpation (feeling organ with hands) Auscultation- (listening to the organ sounds)

6 Working Together  * What a structure can do depends on its specific form – Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function

7 Levels of Structural Organization Chemical (atoms form molecules) Cells (smallest unit of living things) Tissue (group of cells with common function) Organ Organ Systems (organs working together with common purpose)

8 Organ Systems  1. Cardiovascular  2. Integumentary  3. Skeletal  4. Muscular  5. Nervous  6. Endocrine

9 Organ Systems (Cont.)  7. Respiratory  8. Digestive  9. Lymphatic  10. Urinary  11. Reproductive

10 Maintaining Life  No organ system works in isolation they work cooperatively to promote well-being of entire body.

11 1. Boundaries  Single Celled Organisms- outer membrane to hold in all contents and restrict foreign objects from entering  ** All Cells of our body are surrounded by a selectively permeable membrane

12 Boundaries (Cont)  Whole body protected by Integumentary System or Skin  Protection From: ?  Drying out  Bacteria  Heat  Sun  Chemicals in the Environment

13 2. Movement  Muscular System allows for the movements we make while the skeletal system provides the framework for muscles to pull on and create work Also have movement of items through internal organs such as food, blood, urine by contracting or shortening of muscle cells

14 3. Responsiveness  Nervous System – sends electric pulses to stimuli from the environment

15 4. Digestion  Break food into simple molecules that can be absorbed by blood  Transported through the body cells by the cardiovascular system

16 5. Metabolism  All Chemical Reactions that occur within the body cells Systems Working Together : Metabolism depends on Digestive & Respiratory Systems to make nutrients and oxygen available to the blood and Cardiovascular to distribute through the body- regulated largely by hormones secreted by the Endocrine System

17 6. Excretion  Removing Waste from the body o Digestive System- rids indigestible food o Urinary- rids of nitrogen containing waste- urine o Respiratory- rid of Carbon Dioxide

18 7. Reproduction  Can be cellular or organismal level Cellular - original cell divides into daughter cells Organismal - sperm unites with egg to form an embryo Reproductive responsible for offspring but function regulated by Hormones of Endocrine System

19 8. Growth  Increase in size of body part or organism  Can have increase in the number of cells or increase in the individual cell size  Constructive activities must occur faster than destructive activities to have growth

20 SURVIVAL NEEDS  Body Systems goal is to maintain life but there are other factors that must be present to do so Including: Nutrients Oxygen Water Appropriate Temperature Atmospheric Pressure

21 1. Nutrients  Energy/ Cell Building  Carbohydrates - major fuel for cells  Proteins - essential for building cell structures  Fats - cushion body organs, insulate, and provide energy- rich fuel reserve  Select Minerals and Vitamins- chemical reactions that go on in cells for oxygen transport

22 2. Oxygen  Human cells can only survive a few minutes without oxygen  Approximately 20 % of air we breathe is oxygen

23 3. Water  60 to 80 % of body weight  Single most abundant chemical substance in the body Provides a base for chemical reactions and body secretions and excretions Obtain mostly from foods we eat Lost by evaporation from lungs, skin, and body excretions

24 4. Normal Body Temperature  Muscular System produces most body heat  As temperature drops below 98 F metabolic reactions become slower until they eventually stop  If temperature is too high chemical reactions occur at a frantic pace and cause proteins to lose their shape and stop functioning

25 5. Atmospheric Pressure  Force air exerts on surface of the body  Breathing and gas exchange in the lungs depends on appropriate atmospheric pressure  High altitudes cause atmospheric pressure to be lower and the air to be thin- gas exchange may be inadequate for cellular metabolism

26 BALANCE IS IMPORTANT  It is very important to have each of the needs in the appropriate amount  Too much oxygen- toxic to body  Too much/ little food- obesity/ starvation

27 Homeostasis  The body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously  * Communication Is KEY- Nervous and Endocrine systems very important for this state of balance

28 Negative Feedback  System shuts off original stimulus or reduces it  Change in direction  Controls the everyday (moment to moment changes in Homeostasis of body)  “ Like your Thermostat at Home”  Your thermostat is known as the hypothalamus located in your brain

29 Positive Feedback  Enhances original stimulus  Proceeds in the same direction  Usually control infrequent events such as blood clotting, or enhancing labor contractions during child birth

30 Homeostatic Imbalance  Diseases  As we age body is less efficient at fighting illness  Could also come from negative feedback mechanisms being overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms taking over-  Example= HEART FAILURE

31 Language of Anatomy  Anatomical Position- standing straight, feet slightly apart, palms facing forwards  “standing at attention”  “right” and “left” on the person not from observers viewpoint

32 Regional Terms  Axial- main axis (head, neck, trunk)  Appendicular- appendages or limbs

33 Body Planes  Sagittal- Vertical/ divided into left and right  Frontal - Vertical/ Anterior and Posterior  Transverse - Horizontal/ Superior and Inferior “Cross Section”

34 Organ Systems  Do you remember how many organ systems there were? 11 Organ Systems

35 Integumentary System  Function :  Protects deeper tissue from injury  Pain/ Pressure receptors  Sweat/ Oil Glands Major Organs Hair Skin Nails

36 Skeletal System  Function :  Protects and Supports body organs  Framework for muscles to Pull on  Stores Minerals Major Organs Bones Joints

37 Muscular System  Function :  Allows manipulation of environment  Locomotion, facial expressions, maintain posture  Produce Heat Major Organs Muscles

38 Nervous System  Function :  Control System  Responds by activating appropriate muscles and glands Major Organs Brain Nerves Spinal Cord

39 Endocrine System  Function :  Glands secrete hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and nutrient use Major Organs Thyroid gland Thymus Pancreas ovary Testis Adrenal Gland Pineal Gland Pituitary Gland

40 Cardiovascular System  Function:  Blood Vessels transport blood  Carries oxygen, Carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes  Heart pumps the blood Major Organs Blood Vessels Heart

41 Lymphatic (Immune)  Function :  Picks up fluid leaked from the blood vessels and returns it to the blood  Houses White Blood Cells that are involved in immunity (fighting diseases and sickness) Major Organs Red Bone Marrow Thymus Lymphatic Vessels Spleen Thoracic duct Lymph Nodes

42 Urinary System  Function:  Eliminates nitrogenous waste  Regulates Water  Electrolyte and acid-base balance of blood Major Organs Kidney Ureter Urinary Bladder Urethra

43 Respiratory System  Function :  Keeps the blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide  Gas exchange for the lungs Major Organs Nasal Cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Lung Bronchus

44 Digestive System  Function:  Breaks down food into absorbable units  Indigestible food is eliminated out of body Major Organs Oral Cavity Esophagus Liver Stomach Small Intestine Rectum Anus Large Intestine

45 Reproductive System  Function :  Production of Offspring  Testes - Produce sperm and male sex hormones  Ovaries - produce eggs and female sex hormones

46 Major Organs – MALE  Prostate Gland  Penis  Testes  Scrotum  Ductus deferens

47 Major Organ- Female  Mammary Glands  Ovary  Uterus  Vagina  Uterine tube

48 Dorsal Body Cavity  Protects the fragile nervous system organs  There are 2 subdivisions  Cranial - encases the brain  Vertebral - encloses the spinal cord

49 Ventral Body Cavity  More anterior and larger body cavity  Also has 2 subdivisions  Thoracic - (superior) surrounded by ribs and muscles  Abdominopelvic- (inferior)

50 Thoracic  Pleural Cavity- each houses a lung  Mediastinum - contains the pericardial cavity – encloses the heart  and surrounds the thoracic organs such as esophagus, trachea, and others

51 Abdominopelvic  Abdominal Cavity- stomach, intestines, spleen, liver and other organs  Pelvic Cavity- bladder, some reproductive organs, and rectum

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