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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology SEVENTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb Katja Hoehn PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology SEVENTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb Katja Hoehn PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology SEVENTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb Katja Hoehn PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, Bluegrass Technical and Community College C H A P T E R 1 The Human Body: An Orientation P A R T A

2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview of Anatomy and Physiology  Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another  Gross or macroscopic  Microscopic  Developmental  Physiology – the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery

3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gross Anatomy  Regional – all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg)  Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by system  Surface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin

4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microscopic Anatomy  Cytology – study of the cell  Histology – study of tissues

5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Developmental Anatomy  Traces structural changes throughout life  Embryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth

6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Specialized Branches of Anatomy  Pathological anatomy – study of structural changes caused by disease  Radiographic anatomy – study of internal structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures such as X-ray, MRI, and CT scans  Molecular biology – study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level

7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Physiology  Considers the operation of specific organ systems  Renal – kidney function  Neurophysiology – workings of the nervous system  Cardiovascular – operation of the heart and blood vessels  Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level

8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Integumentary System  Forms the external body covering  Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails  Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D Figure 1.3a

9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal System  Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments  Protects and supports body organs  Provides the framework for muscles  Site of blood cell formation  Stores minerals Figure 1.3b

10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscular System  Composed of muscles and tendons  Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression  Maintains posture  Produces heat Figure 1.3c

11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nervous System  Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves  Is the fast-acting control system of the body  Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands Figure 1.3d

12 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cardiovascular System  Composed of the heart and blood vessels  The heart pumps blood  The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body Figure 1.3f

13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lymphatic System  Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels  Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood  Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream  Houses white blood cells involved with immunity Figure 1.3g

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Respiratory System  Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs  Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Figure 1.3h

15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Digestive System  Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver  Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood  Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces Figure 1.3i

16 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Urinary System  Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra  Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body  Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood Figure 1.3j

17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Male Reproductive System  Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens  Main function is the production of offspring  Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones  Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract Figure 1.3k

18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Female Reproductive System  Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina  Main function is the production of offspring  Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones  Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus  Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn Figure 1.3l

19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostasis  Homeostasis – ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world  The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium  Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis

20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostatic Control Mechanisms  Variables produce a change in the body  The three interdependent components of control mechanisms:  Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli)  Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintained  Effector – provides the means to respond to stimuli

21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Figure 1.4 Change detected by receptor Stimulus: Produces change in variable Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to Receptor (sensor)Effector Control center Variable (in homeostasis) Response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homeostasis Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to Imbalance

22 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Figure 1.4 Variable (in homeostasis)

23 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Figure 1.4 Stimulus: Produces change in variable Variable (in homeostasis) Imbalance 1

24 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Figure 1.4 Change detected by receptor Stimulus: Produces change in variable Receptor (sensor) Variable (in homeostasis) Imbalance 2 1

25 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Figure 1.4 Change detected by receptor Stimulus: Produces change in variable Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to Receptor (sensor) Control center Variable (in homeostasis) Imbalance 2 3 1

26 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Figure 1.4 Change detected by receptor Stimulus: Produces change in variable Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to Receptor (sensor)Effector Control center Variable (in homeostasis) Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to Imbalance

27 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Figure 1.4 Change detected by receptor Stimulus: Produces change in variable Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to Receptor (sensor)Effector Control center Variable (in homeostasis) Response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homeostasis Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to

28 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Negative Feedback  In negative feedback systems, the output shuts off the original stimulus  Example: Regulation of room temperature

29 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater on Signal wire turns heater off Response; temperature rises Response; temperature drops Stimulus: rising room temperature Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Effector (heater) Set point Control center (thermostat) Heater off Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Control center (thermostat) Heater on Imbalance Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat)

30 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Balance

31 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: rising room temperature Balance Imbalance

32 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: rising room temperature Balance Imbalance Receptor-sensor (thermometer In thermostat) Set point

33 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: rising room temperature Balance Imbalance Receptor-sensor (thermometer In thermostat) Set point Control center (thermostat)

34 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater off Stimulus: rising room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Stimulus: dropping room temperature Imbalance Receptor-sensor (thermometer In thermostat) Set point Control center (thermostat) Heater off

35 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater off Response; temperature drops Stimulus: rising room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Stimulus: dropping room temperature Receptor-sensor (thermometer In thermostat) Set point Control center (thermostat) Heater off

36 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Imbalance

37 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Imbalance

38 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Control center (thermostat) Imbalance

39 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater on Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Control center (thermostat) Heater on Imbalance

40 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater on Response; temperature rises Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Control center (thermostat) Heater on

41 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.5 Signal wire turns heater on Signal wire turns heater off Response; temperature rises Response; temperature drops Stimulus: rising room temperature Stimulus: dropping room temperature Balance Effector (heater) Effector (heater) Set point Control center (thermostat) Heater off Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Control center (thermostat) Heater on Imbalance Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat)

42 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Positive Feedback  In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus  Example: Regulation of blood clotting Figure 1.6

43 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.6 Released chemicals attract more platelets Clotting occurs as platelets adhere to site and release chemicals Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated Feedback cycle ends after clot seals break Clotting proceeds; newly forming clot grows

44 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.6 Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated 1

45 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.6 Clotting occurs as platelets adhere to site and release chemicals Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated 2 1

46 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.6 Released chemicals attract more platelets Clotting occurs as platelets adhere to site and release chemicals Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated 2 1 3

47 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.6 Released chemicals attract more platelets Clotting occurs as platelets adhere to site and release chemicals Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated Clotting proceeds; newly forming clot grows

48 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.6 Released chemicals attract more platelets Clotting occurs as platelets adhere to site and release chemicals Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated Feedback cycle ends after clot seals break Clotting proceeds; newly forming clot grows

49 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostatic Imbalance  Disturbance of homeostasis or the body’s normal equilibrium  Overwhelming the usual negative feedback mechanisms allows destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over


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