# DESN 100: Week 4 Brief Overview of Industrial piping Structural drafting Civil drafting HVAC Electrical Schematics.

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DESN 100: Week 4 Brief Overview of Industrial piping Structural drafting Civil drafting HVAC Electrical Schematics

Industrial Process Piping

Definitions Piping – Any kind of conduit used in a wide range of applications Plumbing – Small diameter pipes that carry liquids, solids, or gases Water Natural gas Waste

Definitions Process piping – Transport of fluids between storage tanks and process equipment Transportation piping – Carry products hundreds of miles Petroleum products Gases Coal slurries

Definitions Pipe drafting – Visualization of pipes and fittings in various orthographic and pictorial views Double line Single line – Most visualization problems for beginners Isometric Flow diagram – Schematic, non-scale diagram of system layout

Double- and Single-Line Drawings

Definitions Piping drawing – Most complex Scale drawing Provides several views – Plan – Elevation – Section All equipment, dimensions, and notes shown Drawn from flow diagrams, manufacturer specifications, and mechanical drawings

Definitions Piping isometric – Pictorial drawing – Illustrates pipe run in three dimensions – Information from piping drawings Spool drawing – Drawn orthographically – Shows all pipe and fittings used to assemble a segment – Usually non-scale

Structural engineering – Associated with commercial steel and concrete buildings – Engineer components of a building or structure Skyscrapers Bridges

Definitions Structural drafting – Independent of or cross-referenced to other drawings Architectural Plumbing HVAC

Civil Drafting Graticules – Two sets of grid lines Latitude – Lines that divide the earth horizontally – Parallels Longitude – Lines that divide the earth vertically – Meridians

Definitions Prime meridian – Zero line of longitude – Runs through Greenland Local meridians – All other meridian lines

Definitions Degrees – Divided into components Degrees Minutes (60 minutes = 1 degree) Seconds (60 seconds = 1 minute) E.g., 124° 45' 12“ Conversion to decimal degrees – 124 + (45/60) + (12/3600)

Definitions Great circle – Direction around earth from a given point in relation to the latitude and longitude coordinates Azimuth – Angle Moving clockwise Between meridian at the starting point and the great circle

Azimuth

Property Descriptions

Metes and Bounds Length – Mete Bearing – Bound Primary form of legal description – 19 states, including 13 original colonies

Metes and Bounds

Rectangular System Used in public-land states Meridians named separately – E,g, First principal meridian Western boundary of Ohio Parallels are all named the same – Baseline

Rectangular System Townships – Six-mile square blocks – Arranged in columns (ranges) – Divided into 36 squares (sections) One square mile Divided into fourths (quarters) – Divided into fourths (quarter-quarter sections) Land description – Begins with smallest portion

Rectangular System

Lot and Block Established from either of two other systems – Rectangular – Metes and bounds Subdivision – Given a name – Divided into lots

HVAC

Purpose – To provide air movement or exchange within a structure Also known as “mechanical systems” Residential structures – Do not require plans unless complex Commercial structures – Use floor plan as overlap to begin mechanical systems drawings

HVAC Systems Central forced-air systems – Most common for climate heating and air conditioning Thermostat starts cycle Fan forces air into ducts Ducts connect to diffusers, or air supply registers Cycle begins again

Central Forced-Air System

HVAC Systems Refrigeration – Most common type of cooling system – Components Evaporator / Cooling coil Air pump / Compressor Condenser Expansion valve

HVAC Systems Hot water system – Water circulated through radiators or convectors – Circulator moves water through system – Water kept at temperature between 150 and 180 degrees F.

HVAC Systems Zoned control system – Allows for one or more heaters and one thermostat per room – Flexible Radiant heat – Control surface temperatures – Minimize excessive air movement – Piping or wiring in ceiling or floor

HVAC Systems Heat pump – Forced-air central heating and cooling – Uses compressor and circulating liquid gas refrigerant – Heat extracted from outside air and pumped inside – Acts as a dehumidifier when cooling

Heat Pump

Pollutants Influence choice of ventilation Types – Moisture – Carbon monoxide – Airborne pathogens – Tobacco smoke – Formaldehyde – Radon – Common household products

Electrical and Electronic Schematic Drafting

Pictorial Represent circuit in three dimensions Realistic Easy to understand Uses – Catalogs – Brochures – Service manuals – Assembly drawings

Pictorial

Schematic Series of lines and symbols – Electrical current path – Circuit components Types – Block – Wiring – Schematic wiring

Schematic

Block Diagram Simplified version of schematic Minimum detail of component No connections at individual terminals

Block Diagram

Wiring Diagram Shows all interconnections of system components Referred to as point-to-point interconnecting wiring diagrams More detailed than schematic

Wiring Diagram

Schematic Wiring Diagram Simplicity of schematic Completeness of wiring diagram – Circuit is series of lines and symbols Electrical current path Circuit components – Connection terminals shown

Schematic Wiring Diagram

Highway Wiring Diagram Representation of point-to-point interconnecting wiring – Simplified and condensed Uses – Fabrication – Quality control – Troubleshooting

Highway Wiring Diagram

Cable Diagram Associated with multiconductor system Also known as cable harness diagrams Provide – Circuit destination – Number of leads – Conductor type – Power rating

Cable Diagram

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