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1 Motivation Hunger Love/Sex Achievement. 3 Instinct A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. Examples: –Imprinting.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Motivation Hunger Love/Sex Achievement. 3 Instinct A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. Examples: –Imprinting."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Motivation Hunger Love/Sex Achievement


3 3 Instinct A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. Examples: –Imprinting in birds –The return of the salmon to their birthplace –Innate tendencies in humans such as rooting and sucking

4 4 (1) Drive Reduction Theory A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Physiological Need Psychological Need

5 5 Inner Pushes We are pushed by our need to eat (hunger) to reduce the tension by eating. The physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis External Pulls We are pulled by incentives – positive or negative stimuli that lure or repel us. Examples: The sight of an attractive person The threat of disapproval

6 6 (2) Arousal Some motivated behavior increases arousal. Well-fed animals will leave their shelter to explore, seemingly in the absence of any need-based drive. Curiosity drives explorers and scientists to discover.

7 7 Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs

8 Hierarchy of Needs 8

9 9 Hunger The Physiology of Hunger 1- Body Chemistry (insulin and glucose) 2- The Brain (hypothalamus) 3- Set Point 4- Basal Metabolic Rate

10 10 The Endocrine System

11 11 The Endocrine System The Hypothalamus It is involved with drives associated with survival such as hunger, thirst, emotion, sex, and reproduction

12 12 The Brain The Hypothalamus The Lateral Hypothalamus (brings on hunger) When deprived of food and blood sugar is low, the LH churns out orexin, a hunger- triggering hormone. The Ventromedial Hypothalamus (depresses hunger) Stimulate this area and an animal will stop eating. Destroy it & the animal’s intestines will process food very rapidly causing it to eat more often.

13 13 How Does these Complementary Areas in the Hypothalamus Work? 1- They influence how much glucose is converted to fat and how much is left available to fuel immediate activity (and minimize hunger). 2- Distributed brain systems monitor the body’s state and reports to the hypothalamus, which sends the information to the frontal lobes, which decide behavior.

14 14 How Does these Complementary Areas in the Hypothalamus Work? 3- Manipulating the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus alters the body’s “weight thermostat”, which predisposes us to keep our body at a particular weight level called “set point.”

15 15 Maintaining the Body’s Set-Point Weight 1- The body adjusts to food intake. 2- The body adjusts to energy output 3- The body adjusts to its basal metabolic rate

16 16 Basal Metabolic Rate The rate at which the body burns calories for energy depending on: 1- fat cells 2- hormones 3- metabolism

17 17 Hunger The Psychology of Hunger 1- External Incentives 2- Taste Preferences Genetic Conditioned

18 18 Eating Disorders Obesity Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia

19 19 What Causes Eating Disorders? Early Maturity Depression Genes Problems The Desire to Fit the Social Ideal of Slender Culture

20 20 Obesity The Physiology of Obesity 1- Fat Cells 2- Set-Points and Metabolism 3- The Genetic Factor 4- Losing Weight

21 21 Genes and Weight Set-Point Theory A biological mechanism keeps a person’s body weight at a genetically influenced set-point – the weight you stay at when you are not consciously trying to gain or lose weight.

22 22 The “Obese” Gene Obese gene causes fat cells to produce leptin. Leptin travels through blood to hypothalamus (regulates appetite) Leptin reduces appetite

23 23 Why Do People Gain Weight Rapidly? Secretion of leptin is impaired May produce plenty of leptin but their body does not respond to it. Tendency to store calories which have a survival advantage.

24 24 Losing Weight 1- Minimize exposure to tempting food cues. 2- Take steps to boost your metabolism. 3- Be realistic and moderate. 4- Modify both your metabolic rate and your hunger by changing what you eat. 5-Don’t starve all day and eat one big meal at night. 6- Beware of the binge 7- Begin only if you are prepared to exercise and restrict your eating permanently.

25 25 Discuss 1-Discuss your own basal metabolic rate and set point. How do they affect your weight? 2-Are you an external or an internal when it comes to hunger? 3-Discuss your taste preferences. Are they genetic, cultural, or conditioned? 4-Can you change your set point? How? 5-How does leptin work? 6-What is the role of the frontal lobes when it comes to hunger and eating habits? 7-How do we become fat? Discuss the role of leptin, the set point, your taste preferences, fat cells.

26 26 Discuss instinct, drive-reduction theory, Incentive, homeostasis, set-point, hierarchy of needs, externals,basal metabolic rate, internals, hunger- regulating chemicals, orexin, lateral hypothalamus, leptin, ventromedial hypothalamus

27 27 Motives for Love Need for Affiliation The need to associate with others, as by seeking friends, companionship, and love Need for Attachment The deep emotional tie to, and sense of almost physical connection with a loved one Need for Contact Comfort The pleasure derived from close physical contact

28 28 Contact Comfort Margaret & Harry Harlow The Rhesus Experiment Two Kinds of Surrogate Mothers: 1-One made of wires and warming lights,with a milk bottle connected to it 2-One was made of wire and covered with foam rubber and cuddly terry cloth Which mother did the rhesus monkeys chose?

29 29

30 30 Separation Anxiety The distress that most children develop, at around 7-9 months of age, when their primary caregivers temporarily leave them with strangers or in a new environment

31 31 Separation Anxiety Mary Ainsworth The Strange Situation Experiment Three Categories of Children 1-Securely attached 2-Avoidant 3-Anxious-ambivalent

32 32

33 Three Categories of Children Securely Attached They cry if the parent leaves the room; they welcome her back and then play happily again. Avoidant They don’t care if the mother leaves the room and make a little effort to seek contact with her on her return. Anxious-Ambivalent They protest loudly when the mother leaves, yet resist contact with her when she comes back. 33

34 34 Attachment Styles in Adults Philip Shaver Secure Attachment style Avoidant Attachment Style Anxious-ambivalent Style

35 35 Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love The Intimacy Component The Passion Component The Decision/Commitment Component

36 36

37 37 Sternberg’s Triangular Theory ( 8 Combinations of Love) IntimacyPassion Commitment Nonlove - - - Liking + - - Infatuate - + - Empty - - + Romantic + + - Companionate + - + Fatuous - + + Consommate + + +

38 38 The Six Styles of Love John Alan Lee 1-Eros (romantic, passionate love) 2-Ludus (game-playing love) 3-Storge (affectionate, friendly love) 4-Pragma (logical, pragmatic love) 5-Mania (possessive, dependent, “crazy” love) 6-Agape (unselfish love)

39 39 What Determines Compatibility Homagamy The tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, and other characteristics. The Marriage Gradient The tendency to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller and lower in status, and women to marry men who are slightly older, larger and higher in status.

40 40 Motives for Sex 1-The Biology of Desire 2-The Psychology of Desire 3-The Culture of Desire

41 41 The Biology of Desire The Sexual Response Cycle Masters and Johnson (1966) 1- Excitement Phase 2- Plateau Phase 3- Orgasm 4- Resolution Phase (refractory period)

42 42 The Biology of Desire Sex Hormones Testosterone contributes to sexual arousal. Sexual activity contributes to the production of testosterone. At ovulation, women’s sexual desire is only slightly higher than at other times.

43 43 The Psychology of Desire The Brain is the sexiest organ Motives for Sex Enhancement Intimacy Coping Self-affirmation Partner approval Peer approval External Stimuli Imagined Stimuli

44 44 Sexual Orientation In Europe and the US 3 or 4 percent of men are homosexual. 1 or 2 percent of women are homosexual. Fewer than 1% are bisexual.

45 Sexual Orientation 45

46 46 Brain and Sexual Orientation Simon LeVay A cell cluster was reliably larger in heterosexual men than in women and homosexual men. The critical question is: –When did the brain difference begin? –Everything psychological is simultaneously biological

47 47 Genes and Sexual Orientation Research on Homosexual Twin Brothers Among their identical twin brothers, 52% were homosexual. Among the fraternal twin brothers, 22% were homosexual.

48 48 Genes and Sexual Orientation A Follow-up Study on Homosexual Women Twin Sisters 48% of their identical twins were homosexual. 16% of their fraternal twins were homosexual With half the identical twin pairs differing, we know that genes are not the whole story This is the sort of pattern we expect to see when genes are having an influence.

49 49 Prenatal Hormones and Sexual Orientation Stress on mother during pregnancy reduces testoterone which is thought to cause homosexuality in men. Exposure to abnormally high levels of estrogen may produce female offspring who are more likely to be lesbian. The birth order male brothers

50 50 Sexual Orientation 1-Genetic and biological factors 2-Family, peers, and environmental factors 3-Complex interplay of genetic, physiological, and environmental factors

51 51 The Culture of Desire Attitudes and sexual behaviors vary across the planet. Attitudes and sexual behaviors vary with time within the same culture.

52 52 Why Don’t Teens Use Contraceptives? 1- Ignorance 2- Guilt related to sexual activity 3- Minimal communication about birth control 4- Alcohol use 5- Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity

53 53 Is Sexual Orientation Genetic or Learned? Consider: 1- Simon LeVay research 2- Research on male identical and fraternal twins 3- Research on female identical and fraternal twins. 4- The effect of prenatal hormones

54 54 Motives for Achievement Satisfaction on the job The job itself Variety Influence over others Supportive relationships Useful feedback Opportunities offered Clear and consistent rules

55 55 Holland’s Personality Type Theory RealisticFarmers, laborers, truck drivers IntellectualCareers in math and science SocialSalesmen, teachers, counselors ConventionalClerks, secretaries, bank tellers EnterprisingManagers, politicians, ArtisticOccupations involving arts

56 56

57 57 Why Do People Work? 1-Extrinsic Rewards 2-Intrinsic Rewards 3-Personal Identity 4-Social Lives 5-Status

58 58 Sources of Achievement Motivation Emotional Roots –They associate achievement with positive emotions. Cognitive Roots –They attribute achievement to their own competence and effort.

59 59 Motivating People Cultivate Intrinsic Motivation Attend to People’s Motives Set Specific, Challenging Goals Choose an Appropriate Leadership Style.

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