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Sequential Statements Instructors: Fu-Chiung Cheng ( 鄭福炯 ) Associate Professor Computer Science & Engineering Tatung University.

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Presentation on theme: "Sequential Statements Instructors: Fu-Chiung Cheng ( 鄭福炯 ) Associate Professor Computer Science & Engineering Tatung University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sequential Statements Instructors: Fu-Chiung Cheng ( 鄭福炯 ) Associate Professor Computer Science & Engineering Tatung University

2 Sequential Statement These statements can appear inside a process description : – variable assignments – if-then-else – Case – Loop – infinite loop – while loop – for loop – assertion and report – signal assignments – function and procedure calls

3 Sequential Statement-if EBNF: if-statement if_stmt <= [ if_label : ] if boolean_expr then { sequential_stmt } { elsif boolean_expr then { sequential_stmt } } [else { sequential_stmt } ] end if [ if_label ] ;

4 Sequential Statement-if examples if sel = 0 then result <= input_0; -- executed if sel = 0 else result <= input_1; -- executed if sel /= 0 end if; more examples see sources

5 entity thermostat is port ( desired_temp, actual_temp : in integer; heater_on : out boolean ); end entity thermostat; architecture example of thermostat is begin controller : process (desired_temp, actual_temp) is begin if actual_temp < desired_temp - 2 then heater_on <= true; elsif actual_temp > desired_temp + 2 then heater_on <= false; end if; end process controller; end architecture example;

6 Sequential Statement-case EBNF: case_stmt <= [ case_label : ] case expr is ( when choices => { sequential_stmt } ) { … } end case [ case_label ] ; choices <= ( simple_expr | discrete_range | others ) { … }

7 Sequential Statement-case type alu_func is (pass1, pass2, add, sub); case func is when pass1 => res := op1; when pass2 => res := op2; when add => res := op1 + op2; when sub => res = op1 – op2; end case;

8 Sequential Statement-case type opcodes is (nop, add, sub, ld, st, jmp, br, halt); case opcode is when ld | add | sub => op := mem_op; when st | jmp => op := add_op; when others => op := 0; end case;

9 Sequential Statement-case type opcodes is (nop, add, sub, ld, st, jmp, br, halt); case opcode is when add to ld => op := mem_op; when br downto st => op := add_op; when others => op := 0; end case;

10 Sequential Statement-case All possible values of the selector expression must be covered by one and only one choice The values in the choices must be locally static, (known at analysis stage) If the others choice is used, it must be the last alternative and the only choice in the alternative.

11 library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity mux4 is port ( sel : in sel_range; d0, d1, d2, d3 : in std_ulogic; z : out std_ulogic ); end entity mux4; architecture demo of mux4 is begin out_select : process (sel, d0, d1, d2, d3) is begin case sel is when 0 => z <= d0; when 1 => z <= d1; when 2 => z <= d2; when 3 => z <= d3; end case; end process out_select; end architecture demo;

12 Sequential Statement-null Case statement requires an alternative for every value. Sometimes no action is required for a particular value. No action is specified by a “null” statement null_stmt <= [ label : ] null ; Example: case opcode is when add => acc = acc + op; when sub => acc = acc – op; when nop => null; end case;

13 Sequential Statement-null Define a process to be implemented later control_section : process ( sensitivity_list ) is begin null; end process control_section;

14 Sequential Statement-loop VHDL provides three types of loop or iterative constructs: – infinite loop – while loop – for loop

15 Sequential Statement-loop EBNF: Infinite loop infinite_loop_stmt <= [ loop_label : ] loop { sequential_stmt } end loop [ loop_label ] ;

16 entity counter is port ( clk : in bit; count : out natural ); end entity counter; architecture behavior of counter is begin incrementer : process is variable count_value : natural := 0; begin count <= count_value; loop wait until clk = '1'; count_value := (count_value + 1) mod 16; count <= count_value; end loop; end process incrementer; end architecture behavior;

17 Sequential Statement-exit Exit statement can be used to “exit” or “jump out” of any loop. EBNF: exit_stmt <= [label : ] exit [ loop_label : ] [ when boolean_expr ] ; Example: LoopName: loop … exit LoopName; … end loop;

18 Sequential Statement-loop with exit nexted loop with exit statements OuterLoopName: loop … InnerLoopName: loop … exit OuterLoopName when cond-1; … exit when cond-2 … end loop InnerLoopName; …. exit OuterLoopName when cond-3 …. end loop OuterLoopName;

19 Sequential Statement-exit Example: loop … exit ; -- jumps out of the inner most loop … end loop; …… -- exit causes the execution to start from this statement onwards

20 Sequential Statement-exit More examples: exit loop1; -- jumps out of loop -- with label loop1 exit when x = 1; -- jumps out of inner -- most loop when -- condition is true

21 entity counter is port ( clk, reset : in bit; count : out natural ); end entity counter; architecture behavior of counter is begin -- counter process -- next page end architecture behavior;

22 incrementer : process is variable count_value : natural := 0; begin count <= count_value; loop wait until clk = '1' or reset = '1'; exit when reset = '1'; count_value := (count_value + 1) mod 16; count <= count_value; end loop; -- at this point, reset = '1' count_value := 0; count <= count_value; wait until reset = '0'; end loop; end process incrementer;

23 Sequential Statement-next Causes the start of the next iteration of the loop EBNF: next_stmt <= [ label : ] next [ loop_label ] [ when boolean_expr ] ; Examples: loop A: ……… … next ; -- causes the execution to start from stmt label A B: …… -- statement B and those following it are skipped … end loop;

24 Sequential Statement-while EBNF: while_loop_stmt <= [ loop_label : ] while boolean_expr loop { sequential_stmt } end loop [ loop_label ] ; Example: while index >0 loop -- do something with index end loop;

25 entity cos is port ( theta : in real; result : out real ); end entity cos; architecture series of cos is begin summation : process (theta) is variable sum, term : real; variable n : natural; begin sum := 1.0; term := 1.0; n := 0; while abs term > abs (sum / 1.0E6) loop n := n + 2; term := (-term) * theta**2 / real(((n-1) * n)); sum := sum + term; end loop; result <= sum; end process summation; end architecture series;

26 Sequential Statement-for EBNF: for_loop_stmt <= [ loop_label : ] for id in discrete_range loop { sequential_stmt } end loop [ loop_label ] ; discrete_range <= expr ( to | downto ) expr Example: for count in 0 to 127 loop count_out <= count; wait for 5 ns; end loop;

27 Sequential Statement-for Example: type controller_state is (initial, idle, active, error); … for state in controller_state loop...-- loop parameter state is implicitly -- declared over the for loop end loop;

28 Sequential Statement-for Illegal example: erroneous : process is variable i, j : integer; begin i := loop_param; -- error! (not defined) for loop_param in 1 to 10 loop loop_param := 5; -- error! (loop_param is constant) end loop; j := loop_param; -- error! (not defined) end process erroneous;

29 Sequential Statement-for example: hiding_example : process is variable a, b : integer; begin a := 10; for a in 0 to 7 loop b := a; end loop; -- a = 10, and b = 7... end process hiding_example;

30 Sequential Statement-for Loop parameter’s type is the base type of the discrete range. Loop parameter is a constant inside the loop body. It can be used in an expression but not written to. Loop parameter is not required to be explicitly declared. Loop parameter’s scope is defined by the loop body. Consequently, it hides any variable of the same name inside the loop body.

31 architecture fixed_length_series of cos is begin summation : process (theta) is variable sum, term : real; begin sum := 1.0; term := 1.0; for n in 1 to 9 loop term := (-term) * theta**2 / real(((2*n-1) * 2*n)); sum := sum + term; end loop; result <= sum; end process summation; end architecture fixed_length_series;

32 Sequential Statement- assertion Assertion statements can be used to verify if a design functions correctly Assert statements are particularly useful for debugging. EBNF: assert_stmt <= [ label : ] assert boolean_expr [ report expr ] [severity expr ] ; Severity level: note, warning, error and failure Default Severity: error

33 Sequential Statement- assertion Examples: assert initialValue = '0' and currentCharacter <= '9‘ report "Input number " & input_string & " contains a non-digit";

34 Sequential Statement- assertion assert free_memory >= low_water_limit report "low on memory, about to start garbage collect“ severity note; assert packet_length /= 0 report "empty network packet received“ severity warning; assert clock_pulse_width >= min_clock_width severity error; assert (lastPosition - firstPosition + 1) = noOfEntries report "inconsistency in buffer model“ severity failure;

35 entity SR_flipflop is port ( S, R : in bit; Q : out bit ); end entity SR_flipflop; architecture checking of SR_flipflop is begin set_reset : process (S, R) is begin assert S = '1' nand R = '1'; if S = '1' then Q <= '1'; end if; if R = '1' then Q <= '0'; end if; end process set_reset; end architecture checking;

36 maximizer : process (a, b, c) variable result : integer; begin if a > b then if a > c then result := a; else result := a; -- Oops! Should be: result := c; end if; elsif b > c then result := b; else result := c; end if; assert result >= a and result >= b and result >= c report "inconsistent result for maximum" severity failure; z <= result; end process maximizer;

37 Sequential Statement- report EBNF: report_stmt <= [ label : ] report expr [ severity expr] ; Useful for writing “trace writes” in VHDL Example: report “writing data to output ports” Default Severity: note

38 Sequential Statement- report transmit_element : process (transmit_data) is variable declarations begin report "transmit_element: data = " & data_type'image(transmit_data); end process transmit_element;

39 Naming Rule Entity names: RegisterBank Architecture names: BehaviorModel Process Names: StoreAndCheck Constants, Labels: CONTROL_SECTION Function/procedure names: getMaxValue() Variables and signals: returnValue Keyword: ENTITY... IS


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