2The Roman Empire55BC Julius Caesar arrives in Britain43AD Invasion of Britain under Emperor ClaudiusBuilding of Hadrian’s wall436 AD End of the Roman withdrawalThe Roman occupation left little influence upon the language, apart from place names such as those ending inChester/cester from the Latin word castrae meaning camp
3Anglo-Saxon Invasion436 AD “Germanic/ northern European” tribes Angles, Saxons and Jutes invadedSaxons invaded first but it is the Angles who give us the name of the language Englisc (anglish)Today’s regional variations in accents and vocabulary can be traced to the arrival of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes, who brought with them different versions of the same language.
4The CeltsDescendants of Indio-European tribes, who are believed to have originated in south east Europe. Arrived from c500 BC.Displaced by the arrival of the Angle and Saxon tribes. They are driven in the mountains, islands and costal fringes of the far north and westScots, Irish, Welsh, Manx, Cornish and Breton are all descended from CelticThe Scottish word “sassenachs” is the Celtic word for Saxons.Very few Celtic words remain in modern EnglishRiver names: Nene DartCoombe (deep valley)as in IlfracombeSome nouns: ass, bannock, brock binnBrittany (Breton)Taken to France by migrating Celts 5 – 6c
5The Runic AlphabetOld English was first written using the runic alphabetEach letter had a nameThe origins are unknownThe common runic alphabet consisted of 24 letters but in its most developed form, in 9th century Northumbria, it consisted of 31 lettersRunic inscriptions are found on artefacts and stone monumentsThe earliest evidence dates back to Ad
6Old English Manuscripts Main literary work of the period is a poem, Beowulf – transcribed around AD1000, but originally composed some 250 years earlierThe story tells of a Scandinavian,hero who kills a monster in Denmark and later becomes the king of the Geats, in southern Sweden
7Christianity Some Latin borrowings in the Old English period 597ADSt Augustine landed at Thanet and introduced the Benedictine order in to EnglandChristian monks brought a huge new vocabulary – mainly Latin but also some Greek, Hebrew and Arabic wordsThe monks established churches, monasteries and schools, where education and culture thrivedWithin a century most Anglo-Saxons were converted7th & 8th centuries the centre of religious and cultural learning was at Lindisfarne, in Northumberland9th centuryWinchester became chief centre for learning. It was where Aelfric translated the bible and other major texts into English (Anglo-Saxon)ChristianitySome Latin borrowings in the Old English periodabbot, alms, alter, anchor, angel, apostle, ark, cancer candle, canon, cap, cedar cell, chalice, chest. cleric, creed, cucumber, deacon, demon, disciple, elephant, epistle, fever, font, giant, grammatical, history, hymn, idol, laurel, lentil, lily, litany, lobster, marshmallow, martyr, mass, master, mat, noon, nun, offer organ, oyster, paper, place, plant, pope, priest, prophet, psalm, purple, radish relic, rule. sabbath, school, scorpion, ;shrine, sock, temple, tiger, title, tunic, verse
8Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation Written in Ad 731 by the Venerable BedeWritten in Latin and translated into Anglo-Saxon in the 9th Century
9some differences - graphemes Old English ADAnglo-Saxonsome differences - graphemesAnglo-Saxon Modern Englishæaashþth (that)thornth (this)ðethρwwyngʒyogh
10some similarities Old English 500-1050 AD Anglo-Saxon Modern English wæs wasfæder fatherworold worldcwen queencyning kingmon manhus housefeld (a cleared area of woodland) field
11some differences - vocabulary Old English ADAnglo-Saxonsome differences - vocabularyAnglo-Saxon Modern Englishgelimplicefitting/suitableneatacattleswefndreamfrumseaftbeginning/creation
12some differences - grammar Old English ADAnglo-Saxonsome differences - grammarSe guma geseah þone bodanThe man saw the messengerSe boda geseah þone gumanThe messenger saw the manTherefore, the word the before the object of the sentence is þone and the object noun takes the inflection ‘n’
13some differences - grammar Old English ADAnglo-Saxonsome differences - grammarSe guma geseah þone bodanHenceThe man saw the messengermeans the same asþone bodan geseah se gumaThe messenger was seen by the man
14Old English 500-1050 AD - Summary of main points Anglo-Saxon derived from a Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languagesIts alphabet differed from the Roman alphabetThere is no single spelling system at the time. So the word ‘evil’ can be found as yfel or efelIt was an ‘inflected’ language, so word order did not need to be fixedThere were punctuation marks or capital letters in Anglo-Saxon writings and many variations in the spaces between wordsThere were many compound words e.g. ‘banhus’ (bone-house), meaning a person’s bodyThere is a clear line of descent from Old English to present day English, in sounds, spelling vocabulary and grammar1/3 of the words we use on any page have Old English origins
15Old Norse Old Norse Words -by (village) 739AD -thorpe (settlement) Riding (third part)739ADFirst landing of Scandinavian invaders collectively known as the VikingsOld Norse is derived from the same language family as Anglo-Saxon but most often the word endings (inflections) were different, so, for ease of understanding they dropped them.This accelerated the loss of these inflections from English
16DanelawDuring the 9th century Alfred the Great defeated the Norsemen and they withdrew to the north, behind an agreed line known as the DANELAW. Hence, their influence survives more strongly in the north and north easte.g ‘gate’ Old Norse meaning ‘street’Generally it was a matter of chance whether the Anglo-Saxon or Old Norse word survived. Sometimes both survived but one changed its meaninge.g.‘to die’ and ‘to starve’ originally meant the same but the latter acquired a more specific meaning over time
18The Norman ConquestAfter the Norman Conquest, land and power were taken by French noblemen. French, as the language of the dominant class, became the language of government, administration and high culture.French was seen as the language of sophistication and so adopted by upper class English peopleEnglish was submerged for nearly 300 yearsWhen it did re-emerge as the national language it was heavily influenced by FrenchEnglish - ox, sheep, swine, calfFrench - beef, mutton, pork, vealEnglish see animals as stock to be rearedFrench see them as food to be prepared by servants
19English see animals as stock to be reared French see them as food to be prepared by servants
20Resurgence of EnglishGreat deal of antagonism between France and EnglandBy the end of 12th century the children of Norman noblemen were speaking EnglishBlack Death of 1384 made labour scarce and raised the status of the English speakerBy middle of 14th century, English again being used as language of government and administration1356 – English used for court proceedings1362 – English used to open Parliament1399 – English used in the coronation of Henry IV
21u was used where we would now use V uu was used to represent w Middle EnglishGrapheme changesAfter 1400, the Old English letters þ ð ρ and æ had fallen out of useAnd there were some inconsistencies ʒ or g was used for gu was used where we would now use Vuu was used to represent w
22Middle EnglishSpelling changesThe French ‘qu’ was adopted in place of the Anglo-Saxon ‘cw’Irregular words were replaced by more regular formse.g. the Old English ‘bok’ was ‘bek’ in the plural. This and other words adopted the regular –s ending. Very few irregular plurals exist now
23Middle English Grammar Inflected verb endings remained Inflected noun endings died outThe Anglo-saxon þæm scipum had become to the shippes using a preposition and a regular plural endingNew verbs constructions, such as shal be, and hadde maked are in useThe infinitive form is now marked by ‘to’ rather than the inflected ‘an’cuman became to comeInflected verb endings remainedPresent tense Past tenseI play(e) played(e)thou playest playedesthe/she playeth played(e)we/you/they playe(n) played(en)
24popular? learned? literary? Vocabulary Old English French Latin kingly royal regalask question interrogatefast firm securerise mount ascendHoly sacred consecratedpopular?learned?literary?
251386 Geoffrey Chaucer began work on By mid 14th century English was being used in literature1386 Geoffrey Chaucer began work onThe Canterbury tales
26Middle EnglishBy the end of 15th century the pronunciation of English had radically and rapidly changed – within the over the course of a couple of generations, in what is known as the Great Vowel ShiftSo the sentenceso it is time to see the shoes on the same feet nowWould sound like this in Middle Englishsaw it is team to say the shows on the sarm fate nooThe Great Vowel Shift marks the last major barrier between early English and the Standard English of today
27The beginnings of Standard English Greatly influenced by the advent of printing, instigated by Caxton’s first printing press 1476He bases his spellings on the phonetics of his own dialect - the English of London and the East MidlandsLiteracy is spreading and the demand for English books growsCaxton published around 100 titles - including Chaucer’s Canterbury TalesDuring the 15th century, written English gradually became more uniform and English grammar simplerThou, thee, thy and ye were starting to disappear - as was -eth as a verb endingIt lives on however, in this famous quotation “cometh the hour, cometh the man”Arbitrary nature of this dialect choiceWhy the need for a standard?
28The beginnings of Standard English Why did the East Midlands dialect become the ‘standard’?Arbitrary nature of this dialect choiceWhy the need for a standard?
29Early Modern EnglishThe Renaissance (‘rebirth’) – late 15th centuryRediscovery ofphilosophyartsscienceastronomychronologymathematicsNavigationThe Renaissance was a period of changing ideas about humanity and our place in the universeSee Crystal page 193 for examples of classical and other vocabulary
30Shakespeare bare-faced dislocate assassination thin air stark naked In his writings, William Shakespeare used more than 33,000different words3,000 of those words make their first appearance in his playsThe estimated vocabulary of an average adult in Britain today is 15,000Shakespeare is renowned for his ability to coin new words and phrasesbare-faceddislocateassassinationthin airstark naked
31Shakespeare Changes in meaning Hamlet (1.II. Shakespeare uses the word merely in the sense of entirelywants lacksflushing rednessgalled soredexterity speed
32The Authorised Version of the Bible 1604 a conference of leading churchmen, supported by King James I, called for a new translation of the BibleIt took 47 scholars 7 years to finish itIt introduced 8,000 new words to the lexiconThe common people – still largely illiterate – could now listen to readings and sermons in their own tongue
33Concern over the standard of English 1712The massive influx of new ‘foreign’ was a cause of concern for many.Jonathan Swift, in Dublin, proposes an English Academy, to ‘fix’ the language.It was believed that the language was changing too rapidly and that it was being corrupted.Latin was revered and purists tried to impose its rules on the English language.
34Concern over the standard of English PrescriptivismYou should never end a sentence with a prepositionYou should never start a sentence with a conjunctionYou should never split an infinitive
35Dr Johnson’s Dictionary Published in 1775Written in two volumesDefined 43,500 words and offered 118,000 quotations of usageThe dictionary is famous for the precision of its definitions. Johnson cites the verb ‘take’ as having 113 transitive meanings and 21 intransitiveThe dictionary also traces the history of the words, up to that datee.g. he gives 15 examples of the spelling of ‘good’:good god gode guod guode godde goed gowdgodd guid guide gud gwde guyd gewd
36Role of the DictionaryDesigned to record the language in use at a particular time in historyThe status of dictionariesWord becoming institutionalisedHow words are selected for entry into the dictionaryLanguage change at word level
37Modern English 1700 -Present The growth of the English vocabularyDates New words and senses New words alone, ,500, ,000, ,000, ,000, ,000Figures from the Oxford English Dictionary databaseMajor growth during the Agricultural and Industrial revolutionRate of growth slowed down in 20th century
38Modern English 1700 -Present Other factors influencing the language?Major growth during the Agricultural and Industrial revolutionRate of growth slowed down in 20th century
39English TodayCan we speak about just one English?