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A very brief guide to … The history of the English language © Page 1 of 15
Before 100 BC, Britain was populated by a mixture of tribes, including the Celts, Picts, Irish and Cornish. They all spoke a variety of Celtic languages. Early beginnings © Page 2 of 15
In the 5 th century AD, settlers from west Germany crossed over to Britain. These tribes were called Saxons, Jutes and Angles, and set up kingdoms called ‘East Anglia’, ‘West Saxon’, ‘East Saxon’ etc. They spoke a dialect of the Germanic language and this slowly evolved into the English we speak today. The origins of English © Page 3 of 15
The language spoken by the Germanic settlers developed differently to the forms found in what is now known as Germany. This early form of English is known as ‘Old English’. Old English (c. 400–1100 AD) © Page 4 of 15
Viking invaders started arriving in north east England in the 8 th century. Parts of their Scandinavian language (which is closely related to Germanic languages too), including words describing family and animals, spread through northern England. These words were integrated into Old English. Influences during the Old English period © Page 5 of 15
When the Normans invaded in 1066, French became the dominant language (of court, the church, and the nobility) while the rest of the country spoke versions of English. Gradually, English became more widely used by the educated upper classes and by 1425 English was used universally again in speech and writing. However, it had changed completely since the Old English period and became known as Middle English. Middle English (c. 1100–1450 AD) © Page 6 of 15
Features of Middle English heavily influenced by Middle English especially legal, religious and administrative terms such as justice, jury, govern and sovereign. French lexis became much simpler, reflecting the way the two languages had to co-exist inflections disappeared (all plurals ended -en, -es or -s. grammar Go to the ‘Ages of English’ interactive timeline at /british/launch_tl_ages_engli sh.shtmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/history /british/launch_tl_ages_engli sh.shtml to listen to Old and Middle English texts. © Page 7 of 15
Features of Middle English pronunciation was changing with vowels becoming shorter, e.g. leef became life and teem became time. known as the Great Vowel Shift an estimated 85% of Old English words fell out of use after the Viking and Norman invasions no standardised system of spelling pronunciation thousands of Latin words, found in French, replaced Old English terms Latin words Middle English © Page 8 of 15
In 1476, William Caxton introduced the printing press to Britain. Many texts could now be mass-produced, which meant that there was a move towards standardisation in how they were printed, in terms of spelling and punctuation. Many Greek and Latin texts were translated into English. Caxton chose the East Midlands (London, Oxford, Cambridge) dialect to print works in. This soon became the most prestigious form of English. Early Modern English c.1470–1700 © Page 9 of 15
Features of Early Modern English brought words from African, Asian and New World languages world exploration a huge number of Latin, French and Greek words entered the English language: words were needed for new concepts like psychology European Renaissance coined around 1700 new words, such as courtship, excitement and outbreak Shakespeare Early Modern English © Page 10 of 15
More than half of our modern English vocabulary is Latinate (of Latin origin), e.g. colossal, dignified, emotion, and history. Most of our prefixes and suffixes come from Latin, e.g. anti-, post-, pre-, - al, -ate, -ic. Influences of Latin © Page 11 of 15
From 1700 onwards, English became more standardised and similar to the language we recognise today. In 1755, Samuel Johnson finished the first ‘Dictionary of English’. Many writers had attempted this before but his version was more comprehensive than ever before. In 1762, Robert Lowth published the first English grammar book, which laid out some of the fundamental rules for ‘correct’ usage. Late Modern English c – modern day © Page 12 of 15
During this time, many writers made attempts to define the lexicon and grammar of English (Johnson, Lowth etc). This led to a view that some non-standard varieties of English were inferior – this is called Prescriptivism. Latin was upheld as the ideal language and used a model for English grammar, even though it had a very different structure. Standardisation and presctiptivism © Page 13 of 15
Rail travel, colonial expansion, the spread of literacy and mass production of the printed word extended everyone’s access to a standard written form of English. The Industrial Revolution changed the way people worked and lived their lives, so new words were needed. English borrowed huge numbers of words from all over the world. American English was becoming a language in its own right, with its own rules and spelling. 19 th century English © Page 14 of 15
English is now a world language of communication. Electronic media like mobile phones and the internet have radically changed the way we communicate with each other. A more colloquial and casual style of language reflects major social changes. Estuary English (a south-eastern dialect) has become widespread in UK. American English increasingly influences British English and English worldwide. Modern developments © Page 15 of 15
The history of the English language © Page 1 of 15 Use the powerpoint to make notes about the poem that you have in your passport.
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