Presentation on theme: "NATURE TOURISM IN THE UK: What is it and how is it developing?"— Presentation transcript:
1 NATURE TOURISM IN THE UK: What is it and how is it developing? Murray Simpson, Research Scientist,School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford
2 UK TOURISM £76 Billion Expenditure - 2002 4.4% of GDP – 2002 2.1 Mill Jobs 7.4%– (more than construction or transport)77% Businesses SMEs (turnover less than £250,000)England = 89% - Spend, Nights & Staying VisitsScotland = 7%Wales = 2.5%Northern Ireland = 1%FMD 2001: Emerged as a key central element
4 SOME KEY UK ORGANISATIONS VISITBRITAIN,VISITSCOTLAND, WALES, NI, etcREGIONAL TOURISM BODIES, TSE etcTHE COUNTRYSIDE AGENCY / ENGLISH NATUREDEPT. CULTURE, MEDIA & SPORTSCOTTISH ENTERPRISE NETWORKTOURISM & ENVIRONMENT FORUM (Scotland)SCOTTISH NATURAL HERITAGE,COUNTRYSIDE COUNCIL FOR WALESTHE FORESTRY COMMISSIONAREAS OF OUTSTANDING NATURAL BEAUTYNATIONAL TRUST
5 NATURE TOURISM IN THE UK “Natural area tourism is tourism in natural settings.....Nature-based tourism occurs in natural settings with the added emphasis of fostering understanding and conservation of the natural environment” Newsome et al 2002ACTIVITIES: Wildlife, Birds, Cycling, Walking, Horse Riding, Heritage, Organised Trails, Resorts, Forest Parks & Nature Reserves, Camping, (Golf?), Footpaths/Bridleways, Fishing, Quads, Painting etc, ALSO Passive (Rest and Relaxation, Picnics etc).Data & Statistics / Literature / GrowthScotland, Wales & N.I.: Green Tourism / GTBS / etcNational Parks 12+ / National Nature Reserves 200+Also Community Forests 12Rural Tourism & Forestry Tourism
7 RURAL TOURISMBROAD TERM: The Countryside i.e. Wildlife, Landscape, Villages, Community and Cultural Life, Built and Natural Heritage.£11.5 Billion 1998 / 350,000 Jobs (England)19m Holiday Trips / 1.3 b Day Trips / 2/3rds Pop400m walks by 15 million paCoastal vs Urban vs Rural - Highest Sector (UKTS)Sympathetic / Responsible / Livelihood BenefitsWoodland Access / The CA, EN & TSEForestry Tourism £2.3 Billion Exp
8 TWO UK FOREST CASE STUDIES CASHEL FOREST: East side of Loch Lomond, 36km north of Glasgow, Scotland.1,238 hectares.1996 – Royal Scottish Forestry Society.Semi-Natural and Ancient Woodland – Multi Fauna Site2001 – 2006 Management PlanCentre of Excellence for Lifelong Learning (National Research and Education Resource)
9 CASHEL FOREST AIMS & ACHIEVEMENTS: - Woodland Restoration / - Native Flora & Flora /- Remote Wildlife Watching- Residential Woodland Centreand Training /- Visitor Centre /- Craft Centre /- Green Tourism /- Community Participation /- One Million Saplings Planted /- Community Trust /- Empowerment /BUSINESSES RESULTING:- Sporting Lets (Deer Stalking) /- Christmas Trees on .9 ha /- Buildings Rental(Accomm. & SMEs) /- Visitor Centre withexhibition centre for localartists, café, shop /- Local Craftsmen for wood-based activities demonstratingsustainable management) /- Commemorative plantingscheme
10 TWO UK FOREST CASE STUDIES THE NEW FOREST: Hampshire, South-East England150 Square Miles900 Years Ago – William the ConquerorUnique Lowland England / Upland EffectAncient Woodlands / Open Heath / Semi- NaturalLiving Working Community – Medieval Hunting & Pastoral (Ponies, Cattle, Deer & Human Settlements)18 Million Visitors per Year500 Tourism Enterprises - £150 Million pa
11 THE NEW FOREST: BUSINESSES RESULTING: AIMS & ACHIEVEMENTS: - Outdoor Operators;bicycle hire, horse riding, wagon rides,Fishing, waterpark, waterski club,raceway, garden exhibitions,- Art Galleries; artist led courses,workshops, Museums.- Health and well-being relatedservices; spa & skincare centre.- Accommodation Providers;hotels, Inns, B&Bs, farmstays, self-catering cottages, caravan parks,camping grounds.- Food and Drink Establishments;restaurants, cafés, tearooms, pubs.- Tourism Related RetailersAIMS & ACHIEVEMENTS:- Tourism Infrastructure(essential to forest’s sensitivemanagement); car parks, pathnetworks, cycles routes, rail/roadlinks, campsites and accomm.- Passive and Active Recreation;walking, cycling, horseriding,camping, golf, fishing, rest andrelaxation.- Interpretation of Natural andCultural Heritage; informationcentres, panels, website, inc. touristminimisation of impact advice.- Involving Member Organisations(New Forest Committee) / &Community;- Developing Specialist Programmesand Funding, Influencing Policy.
12 THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE UNEP: Tourism and the Environment ‘95THE AMERICASCANADAAUSTRLASIAAFRICASOUTH EAST ASIALeisure expenditure increase: demographics and disposable income
13 NATURE TOURISM: A FEW STRATEGIES AND STRENGTHS 1. Clearly identify destination, Unique Selling Points (USPs) & relationship to nearby attractionsDevelop partnerships between tourism, environmental and community interests.Improve and maintain internal environmental practices.Stimulate community involvement throughout.Encourage all stakeholders to engage in planning process and liaison between tourism enterprises, government bodies and environmental planners.View visitor transportation issues as part of an integral network and create alternatives to the car.
14 NATURE TOURISM: A FEW STRATEGIES AND STRENGTHS 2. Implement sustainable, responsible tourism policies and integrate into local, regional and national govt. strategies.Provide clear and concise interpretative information and information on transport and visitor impact to tourists.Consider Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) & Carrying Capacity esp. in fragile and robust areas, community livelihood benefits & user pays issue.Foster long term commitment and continuity of actors and strong leadership.Review and monitor strategies and impacts.
15 SOME KEY REFERENCESButler, R., Hall, M.C. & Jenkins, J. (Ed) (1998) Tourism and Recreation inRural Areas. Wiley, Chichester, UK.Roberts, L. & Hall, D. (2001) Rural Tourism and Recreation: Principles and Practice. CABI, Oxford, UK.Font, X. & Tribe, J. (2000) Forest Tourism and Recreation: Case Studies in Environmental Management. CABI, Oxford, UKThe Countryside Agency (1998) The Economic Impact of Recreation and Tourism in the English Countryside. Countryside Research Notes 15, UK.The Countryside Agency (2001) Working for the Countryside: A Strategy for Rural Tourism in England English Tourism Council. UKThe Countryside Agency (2001) Sustainable Tourism Management in the New Forest: A Case Study. The Countryside Agency. UK.The Countryside Agency (1999) Regeneration around Cities: The Role of England’s Community ForestsMantau, U. Merlo, M., Sekot, W. & Welcker, B. (2001) Recreational and Environmental Markets for Forest Enterprises. CABI, Oxford, UKThe Countryside Agency (1995) Sustainable Rural tourism: Opportunities for Local Action. The Countryside Agency. UK.The Countryside Agency (2001) Increasing Community Benefits from Rural Tourism. The Countryside Agency. UK.The Countryside Agency (2003) Tourism and Sustainable Land Management Knowledge Assessment. Countryside Agency. UK
16 SOME KEY REFERENCESNewsome, D., Moore, S.A., & Dowling, R. K. (2002) Natural Area Tourism: Ecology, Impacts and Management. Channel View Publications. UK.Eagles, P.F.J., McCool, S.F. & Haynes, C.D. (2002) Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) – The World Conservation Union. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1996) Tourism, Ecotourism and Protected Areas: The State of Nature-Based Tourism around the World and Guidelines for its Development. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.McKercher, B. (1998) The Business of Nature-Based Tourism. Hospitality Press. AustraliaLindberg, K., Wood, M.E. & Engledrum, D. (1998) Ecotourism: a Guide for Planners and Managers. The Ecotourism Society, Vermont, USA.Fennell, D. (1999) Ecotourism. Routeledge. USA and CanadaDirectorate-General for Enterprise, Tourism Unit. (2002) Using Natural and Cultural Heritage to Develop Sustainable Tourism in Non-Traditional Tourist Destinations. European Commission. Brussels.Directorate-General for Enterprise, Tourism Unit. (2000) Towards Quality Rural Tourism: Integrated Quality Management (IQM) of Rural Tourist Destinations. European Commission. Brussels.
17 “In Nature there are Neither Rewards Nor Punishments – there are Consequences” Robert G. Ingersoll (Orator, and advocate of science, reason, and the rights of women and African-Americans)THANK YOU