Presentation on theme: "NATURE TOURISM IN THE UK: What is it and how is it developing? Murray Simpson, Research Scientist, School of Geography and the Environment, University."— Presentation transcript:
NATURE TOURISM IN THE UK: What is it and how is it developing? Murray Simpson, Research Scientist, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford
UK TOURISM £76 Billion Expenditure % of GDP – Mill Jobs 7.4%– (more than construction or transport) 77% Businesses SMEs (turnover less than £250,000) England = 89% - Spend, Nights & Staying Visits Scotland = 7% Wales = 2.5% Northern Ireland = 1% FMD 2001: Emerged as a key central element
SOME KEY UK ORGANISATIONS VISITBRITAIN,VISITSCOTLAND, WALES, NI, etc REGIONAL TOURISM BODIES, TSE etc THE COUNTRYSIDE AGENCY / ENGLISH NATURE DEPT. CULTURE, MEDIA & SPORT SCOTTISH ENTERPRISE NETWORK TOURISM & ENVIRONMENT FORUM (Scotland) SCOTTISH NATURAL HERITAGE, COUNTRYSIDE COUNCIL FOR WALES THE FORESTRY COMMISSION AREAS OF OUTSTANDING NATURAL BEAUTY NATIONAL TRUST
NATURE TOURISM IN THE UK “Natural area tourism is tourism in natural settings.....Nature-based tourism occurs in natural settings with the added emphasis of fostering understanding and conservation of the natural environment” Newsome et al 2002 ACTIVITIES: Wildlife, Birds, Cycling, Walking, Horse Riding, Heritage, Organised Trails, Resorts, Forest Parks & Nature Reserves, Camping, (Golf?), Footpaths/Bridleways, Fishing, Quads, Painting etc, ALSO Passive (Rest and Relaxation, Picnics etc). Data & Statistics / Literature / Growth Scotland, Wales & N.I.: Green Tourism / GTBS / etc National Parks 12+ / National Nature Reserves 200+ Also Community Forests 12 Rural Tourism & Forestry Tourism
NATIONAL PARKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES
RURAL TOURISM BROAD TERM: The Countryside i.e. Wildlife, Landscape, Villages, Community and Cultural Life, Built and Natural Heritage. £11.5 Billion 1998 / 350,000 Jobs (England) 19m Holiday Trips / 1.3 b Day Trips / 2/3rds Pop 400m walks by 15 million pa Coastal vs Urban vs Rural - Highest Sector (UKTS) Sympathetic / Responsible / Livelihood Benefits Woodland Access / The CA, EN & TSE Forestry Tourism £2.3 Billion Exp
TWO UK FOREST CASE STUDIES CASHEL FOREST: East side of Loch Lomond, 36km north of Glasgow, Scotland. 1,238 hectares – Royal Scottish Forestry Society. Semi-Natural and Ancient Woodland – Multi Fauna Site 2001 – 2006 Management Plan Centre of Excellence for Lifelong Learning ( National Research and Education Resource)
CASHEL FOREST AIMS & ACHIEVEMENTS: - Woodland Restoration / - Native Flora & Flora / - Remote Wildlife Watching - Residential Woodland Centre and Training / - Visitor Centre / - Craft Centre / - Green Tourism / - Community Participation / - One Million Saplings Planted / - Community Trust / - Empowerment / BUSINESSES RESULTING: - Sporting Lets (Deer Stalking) / - Christmas Trees on.9 ha / - Buildings Rental (Accomm. & SMEs) / - Visitor Centre with exhibition centre for local artists, café, shop / - Local Craftsmen for wood- based activities demonstrating sustainable management) / - Commemorative planting scheme
TWO UK FOREST CASE STUDIES THE NEW FOREST: Hampshire, South-East England 150 Square Miles 900 Years Ago – William the Conqueror Unique Lowland England / Upland Effect Ancient Woodlands / Open Heath / Semi- Natural Living Working Community – Medieval Hunting & Pastoral (Ponies, Cattle, Deer & Human Settlements) 18 Million Visitors per Year 500 Tourism Enterprises - £150 Million pa
THE NEW FOREST: AIMS & ACHIEVEMENTS: - Tourism Infrastructure (essential to forest’s sensitive management); car parks, path networks, cycles routes, rail/road links, campsites and accomm. - Passive and Active Recreation; walking, cycling, horseriding, camping, golf, fishing, rest and relaxation. - Interpretation of Natural and Cultural Heritage; information centres, panels, website, inc. tourist minimisation of impact advice. - Involving Member Organisations (New Forest Committee) / & Community; - Developing Specialist Programmes and Funding, Influencing Policy. BUSINESSES RESULTING: - Outdoor Operators; bicycle hire, horse riding, wagon rides, Fishing, waterpark, waterski club, raceway, garden exhibitions, - Art Galleries; artist led courses, workshops, Museums. - Health and well-being related services; spa & skincare centre. - Accommodation Providers; hotels, Inns, B&Bs, farmstays, self- catering cottages, caravan parks, camping grounds. - Food and Drink Establishments; restaurants, cafés, tearooms, pubs. - Tourism Related Retailers
THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE UNEP: Tourism and the Environment ‘95 THE AMERICAS CANADA AUSTRLASIA AFRICA SOUTH EAST ASIA Leisure expenditure increase: demographics and disposable income
NATURE TOURISM: A FEW STRATEGIES AND STRENGTHS 1. Clearly identify destination, Unique Selling Points (USPs) & relationship to nearby attractions Develop partnerships between tourism, environmental and community interests. Improve and maintain internal environmental practices. Stimulate community involvement throughout. Encourage all stakeholders to engage in planning process and liaison between tourism enterprises, government bodies and environmental planners. View visitor transportation issues as part of an integral network and create alternatives to the car.
NATURE TOURISM: A FEW STRATEGIES AND STRENGTHS 2. Implement sustainable, responsible tourism policies and integrate into local, regional and national govt. strategies. Provide clear and concise interpretative information and information on transport and visitor impact to tourists. Consider Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) & Carrying Capacity esp. in fragile and robust areas, community livelihood benefits & user pays issue. Foster long term commitment and continuity of actors and strong leadership. Review and monitor strategies and impacts.
SOME KEY REFERENCES Butler, R., Hall, M.C. & Jenkins, J. (Ed) (1998) Tourism and Recreation inRural Areas. Wiley, Chichester, UK. Roberts, L. & Hall, D. (2001) Rural Tourism and Recreation: Principles and Practice. CABI, Oxford, UK. Font, X. & Tribe, J. (2000) Forest Tourism and Recreation: Case Studies in Environmental Management. CABI, Oxford, UK The Countryside Agency (1998) The Economic Impact of Recreation and Tourism in the English Countryside. Countryside Research Notes 15, UK. The Countryside Agency (2001) Working for the Countryside: A Strategy for Rural Tourism in England English Tourism Council. UK The Countryside Agency (2001) Sustainable Tourism Management in the New Forest: A Case Study. The Countryside Agency. UK. The Countryside Agency (1999) Regeneration around Cities: The Role of England’s Community Forests Mantau, U. Merlo, M., Sekot, W. & Welcker, B. (2001) Recreational and Environmental Markets for Forest Enterprises. CABI, Oxford, UK The Countryside Agency (1995) Sustainable Rural tourism: Opportunities for Local Action. The Countryside Agency. UK. The Countryside Agency (2001) Increasing Community Benefits from Rural Tourism. The Countryside Agency. UK. The Countryside Agency (2003) Tourism and Sustainable Land Management Knowledge Assessment. Countryside Agency. UK
SOME KEY REFERENCES Newsome, D., Moore, S.A., & Dowling, R. K. (2002) Natural Area Tourism: Ecology, Impacts and Management. Channel View Publications. UK. Eagles, P.F.J., McCool, S.F. & Haynes, C.D. (2002) Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) – The World Conservation Union. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1996) Tourism, Ecotourism and Protected Areas: The State of Nature- Based Tourism around the World and Guidelines for its Development. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. McKercher, B. (1998) The Business of Nature-Based Tourism. Hospitality Press. Australia Lindberg, K., Wood, M.E. & Engledrum, D. (1998) Ecotourism: a Guide for Planners and Managers. The Ecotourism Society, Vermont, USA. Fennell, D. (1999) Ecotourism. Routeledge. USA and Canada Directorate-General for Enterprise, Tourism Unit. (2002) Using Natural and Cultural Heritage to Develop Sustainable Tourism in Non-Traditional Tourist Destinations. European Commission. Brussels. Directorate-General for Enterprise, Tourism Unit. (2000) Towards Quality Rural Tourism: Integrated Quality Management (IQM) of Rural Tourist Destinations. European Commission. Brussels.
“ In Nature there are Neither Rewards Nor Punishments – there are Consequences” Robert G. Ingersoll 1881 (Orator, and advocate of science, reason, and the rights of women and African-Americans) THANK YOU