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Word and Music in Medieval Cornish Drama 28 th Annual University of California Celtic Studies Conference 17 March 2006 Benjamin Bruch Harvard University.

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Presentation on theme: "Word and Music in Medieval Cornish Drama 28 th Annual University of California Celtic Studies Conference 17 March 2006 Benjamin Bruch Harvard University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Word and Music in Medieval Cornish Drama 28 th Annual University of California Celtic Studies Conference 17 March 2006 Benjamin Bruch Harvard University

2 Medieval Cornish Drama Word and Music in Medieval Cornish Drama Cornish English Glasney College c. 1400

3 Medieval Cornish Drama Plen-an-guary Playing place

4 Medieval Cornish Drama Word and Music in Medieval Cornish Drama · Each day’s performance ends with music and dancing Ÿ Incidental music · Stage directions indicate hymns to be sung (in Latin or English) · Words imported from English º Names of voice parts : dyscant, conternot trebyl, faborden Ÿ Musical terminology · Indigenous (?) Cornish terms º pen can ( Beunans Meriasek ) º pen pusorn ( Resurrexio Domini ) º Names of musical instruments

5 : the “agreeable variety” of verse forms in the Ordinalia “occasionally rises, in emphatic passages, to what must be felt, even now, as a musical recitation; producing the belief that such stanzas were sung, or at least declaimed in operatic style, and perhaps accompanied by music” (1859, 2:447). · Edwin Norris Sung and Spoken Text Ÿ Was any of the dialogue in the dramas intended to be sung? · T.D. Crawford suggests that a number of metrically distinctive stanzas in Resurrexio Domini (lines ) may represent “a scene set entirely to music” ( , 175n46).

6 Sung and Spoken Text º This sequence includes some short-line stanzas º Sarum Missal : Seven boys sing the hymn Gloria Laus on Palm Sunday (Jenner, Longsworth, Bakere) Ÿ Textual and contextual evidence · Pueri Ebreorum sequence in Passio Christi º Pilate refers to “an fleghys vs ow cane” ( PC 432) · Norris (1859) and Crawford ( ) associate certain stanza types with musical performance Ÿ Formal and structural considerations º Unusual verse forms, such as the Type III (ababababCDDDC) stanzas in Passio Christi º Stanzas constructed of four-syllable lines · A sudden change in verse form may signal a shift from spoken to sung dialogue (Padel, Bennett)

7 Bewnans KeThe Life of St Ke · Life of St Ke (ff. 1-8) º Philip Bennett has suggested a parallel with musical interludes in medieval French drama Ÿ Surviving text can be divided into two sections (days?) · Arthurian story (ff. 9-20) · Repetition of words, phrases, and lines in adjacent stanzas º Particularly common in the Arthurian section of the play Ÿ National Library of Wales MS. 23,849D · Discovered in 1999 · Incomplete late 16 th century copy of a damaged early 16 th century exemplar · ‘English’ rhyming rule Ÿ Differs from other surviving medieval Cornish dramas · More complex verse forms · Sequences of speeches using similar or identical verse forms, sometimes with a repeated ‘refrain’

8 A UGELUS Ave pater Arthore lowena thys hag oner turba ge n tis futuræ a record the vonas flowr mer ew [t]he fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves A UGELUS Ave pater Arthore lowena thys hag oner turba ge n tis futuræ a record the vonas flowr mer ew [t]he fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves Repetition in Bewnans Ke ABABcDDCABABcDDC Type III Bewnans Ke, stanza 222

9 M ORRYDUS Lowena thu m arluth mas lowena the n gwelha govr lowena the berha n ras lowena thys barth yth towr mer ew the fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves Repetition in Bewnans Ke ABABcDDCABABcDDC Type III Bewnans Ke, stanza 223 Repetition in Bewnans Ke

10 C ADORUS Lowena ha lvne rowath theso war ver lavarow rag bos in yth elonoyth ny ve genys the barow mer ew the fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves ABABcDDCABABcDDC Type III Bewnans Ke, stanza 224 Repetition in Bewnans Ke

11 C ADORUS Lowena ha lvne rowath theso war ver lavarow rag bos in yth elonoyth ny ve genys the barow mer ew the fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves ABABcDDCABABcDDC Type III Bewnans Ke, stanza 224 Repetition in Bewnans Ke C ADORUS Lowena ha lvne rowath theso war ver lavarow rag bos in yth elonoyth ny ve genys the barow mer ew the fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves M ORRYDUS Lowena thu m arluth mas lowena the n gwelha govr lowena the berha n ras lowena thys barth yth towr mer ew the fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves Bewnans Ke, stanza 223 Bewnans Ke, stanza 222 A UGELUS Ave pater Arthore lowena thys hag oner turba ge n tis futuræ a record the vonas flowr mer ew the fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves A UGELUS Ave pater Arthore lowena thys hag oner turba ge n tis futuræ a record the vonas flowr mer ew the fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves

12 A UGELUS Ave pater Arthore lowena thys hag oner turba ge n tis futuræ a record the vonas flowr mer ew the fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves M ORRYDUS Lowena thu m arluth mas lowena the n gwelha govr lowena the berha n ras lowena thys barth yth towr mer ew the fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves C ADORUS Lowena ha lvne rowath theso war ver lavarow rag bos in yth elonoyth ny ve genys the barow mer ew the fves the va n nath hath ryelder a ra the gorf in pelder nyth ankevyr byttyth brves Bewnans Ke, stanza 222 Bewnans Ke, stanza 223 Bewnans Ke, stanza ABABcDDCABABcDDC Type III Repetition in Bewnans Ke

13 S EPTIMUS L EGATUS Lowena theugh a vyghterne hag onors drys an tasow the yskera n s a dres spern mara meryth in fasow serta n heb mar a pes syrrys hath voth terrys nyth wortesa gwyls na whar S EPTIMUS L EGATUS Lowena theugh a vyghterne hag onors drys an tasow the yskera n s a dres spern mara meryth in fasow serta n heb mar a pes syrrys hath voth terrys nyth wortesa gwyls na whar ABABcddCABABcddC Type IIId Bewnans Ke, stanza 264 Stanzas

14 O CTAVUS L EGATUS Lowena thys myghtern stowt in vhelder in the se pob ath wormol ny n ges dowt hedre vo bys in e le ha suer heb mar a pes syrrys hath voth terrys nyth wortesa gwyls na whar ABABcddCABABcddC Type IIId Bewnans Ke, stanza 265 Stanzas

15 O CTAVUS L EGATUS Lowena thys myghtern stowt in vhelder in the se pob ath wormol ny n ges dowt hedre vo bys in e le ha suer heb mar a pes syrrys hath voth terrys nyth wortesa gwyls na whar Bewnans Ke, stanza 265 O CTAVUS L EGATUS Lowena thys myghtern stowt in vhelder in the se pob ath wormol ny n ges dowt hedre vo bys in e le ha suer heb mar a pes syrrys hath voth terrys nyth wortesa gwyls na whar S EPTIMUS L EGATUS Lowena theugh a vyghterne hag onors drys an tasow the yskera n s a dres spern mara meryth in fasow serta n heb mar a pes syrrys hath voth terrys nyth wortesa gwyls na whar Bewnans Ke, stanza ABABcddCABABcddC Type IIId Stanzas

16 ABABddcC ABABcddC ABABddC Stanzas Overall Structure · Stanza 258: King Arthur ABABcddC Ÿ Stanza 256: First Legate Ÿ Stanza 257: Second LegateABABcddC ababcdedecababcdedec Ÿ Stanza 259: Third Legate Ÿ Stanza 260: Fourth Legate Ÿ Stanza 261: Fifth Legate Ÿ Stanza 262: Sixth LegateABABcddC · Stanza 263: King Arthurababcdedecababcdedec ABABcddC Ÿ Stanza 264: Seventh Legate Ÿ Stanza 265: Eighth Legate Ÿ Stanza 266: Ninth Legate Ÿ Stanza 267: Tenth Legate Ÿ Stanza 268: Eleventh Legate Ÿ Stanza 269: Twelfth LegateABABcddC · Stanza 270: King Arthur

17 E XCERCES R EX I TURIORUM, S ECUNDUS R EX Lowena thys ser Lucy ow arluth emp er or worthy ny re deth thys ga n s an ger the sogys hath wostoyth on byth lowa n eys the golan ath yskar na berth awher arluth worthy me Excerces ew gverror fers ha myghter n in Inury E XCERCES R EX I TURIORUM, S ECUNDUS R EX Lowena thys ser Lucy ow arluth emp er or worthy ny re deth thys ga n s an ger the sogys hath wostoyth on byth lowa n eys the golan ath yskar na berth awher arluth worthy me Excerces ew gverror fers ha myghter n in Inury Stanzas AABCCBdeeDAABCCBdeeD Type III.10e Bewnans Ke, stanza 340

18 A LPHATINA R EX H IJSPANIE, T ERTIUS R EX Hail thewhy ha lowena ny re dueth theugh thu m ena the wostoyth a n gvlasow pel Arthor rag e the venya ef a verew ky n tremena ky n fe vyth mar ver e nyel ny scap ru m pen ea tristyough thy n me Alphaty n myghter n Spain an deg the sen AABCCBdeeDAABCCBdeeD Type III.10e Bewnans Ke, stanza 341 Stanzas

19 M ICYPPA R EX B ABILONIÆ, Q UARTUS R EX Lowena thu m arluth mas ny re dueth a lyas gwlas pa n glowsy n the vos serrys genegy rag sy n gy cas pe n the yskar re n ow thas in ol hast a vith terrys der vras colan me Micyppa ew gwerryor da ha myghter n in Babylon AABAABcddCAABAABcddC Type IIIA.10d Bewnans Ke, stanza 342 Stanzas

20 M ICYPPA R EX B ABILONIÆ, Q UARTUS R EX Lowena thu m arluth mas ny re dueth a lyas gwlas pa n glowsy n the vos serrys genegy rag sy n gy cas pe n the yskar re n ow thas in ol hast a vith terrys der vras colan me Micyppa ew gwerryor da ha myghter n in Babylon AABAABcddCAABAABcddC Type IIIA.10d Bewnans Ke, stanza 342 M ICYPPA R EX B ABILONIÆ, Q UARTUS R EX Lowena thu m arluth mas ny re dueth a lyas gwlas pa n glowsy n the vos serrys genegy rag sy n gy cas pe n the yskar re n ow thas in ol hast a vith terrys der vras colan me Micyppa ew gwerryor da ha myghter n in Babylon Stanzas

21 A LPHATINA R EX H IJSPANIE, T ERTIUS R EX Hail thewhy ha lowena ny re dueth theugh thu m ena the wostoyth a n gvlasow pel Arthor rag e the venya ef a verew ky n tremena ky n fe vyth mar ver e nyel ny scap ru m pen ea tristyough thy n me Alphaty n myghter n Spain an deg the sen A LPHATINA R EX H IJSPANIE, T ERTIUS R EX Hail thewhy ha lowena ny re dueth theugh thu m ena the wostoyth a n gvlasow pel Arthor rag e the venya ef a verew ky n tremena ky n fe vyth mar ver e nyel ny scap ru m pen ea tristyough thy n me Alphaty n myghter n Spain an deg the sen AABCCBdeeDAABCCBdeeD Type III.10e Bewnans Ke, stanza 341 Stanzas

22 E XCERCES R EX I TURIORUM, S ECUNDUS R EX Lowena thys ser Lucy ow arluth emp er or worthy ny re deth thys ga n s an ger the sogys hath wostoyth on byth lowa n eys the golan ath yskar na berth awher arluth worthy me Excerces ew gverror fers ha myghter n in Inury AABCCBdeeDAABCCBdeeD Type III.10e Bewnans Ke, stanza 340 E XCERCES R EX I TURIORUM, S ECUNDUS R EX Lowena thys ser Lucy ow arluth emp er or worthy ny re deth thys ga n s an ger the sogys hath wostoyth on byth lowa n eys the golan ath yskar na berth awher arluth worthy me Excerces ew gverror fers ha myghter n in Inury Stanzas

23 M ICYPPA R EX B ABILONIÆ, Q UARTUS R EX Lowena thu m arluth mas ny re dueth a lyas gwlas pa n glowsy n the vos serrys genegy rag sy n gy cas pe n the yskar re n ow thas in ol hast a vith terrys der vras colan me Micyppa ew gwerryor da ha myghter n in Babylon AABAABcddCAABAABcddC Type IIIA.10d Bewnans Ke, stanza 342 Stanzas

24 AABCCBdeeD Stanzas Overall Structure · Stanza 258: Emperor AABCCBdeeD Ÿ Stanza 256: First King Ÿ Stanza 257: Second King AABCCBdeeD Ÿ Stanza 259: Third King Ÿ Stanza 260: Fourth King Ÿ Stanza 261: Fifth King Ÿ Stanza 262: Sixth KingAABCCBdeeD · Stanza 263: EmperorAABCCCB AABCCBdeeD Ÿ Stanza 264: Seventh King Ÿ Stanza 265: First Duke Ÿ Stanza 266: Second Duke Ÿ Stanza 267: Third Duke Ÿ Stanza 268: Fourth Duke Ÿ Stanza 269: Fifth Duke · Stanza 270: Emperor Stanzas

25 Conclusions · Music to accompany dancing after the play Ÿ Both vocal and instrumental music played a role in medieval Cornish drama · Content Ÿ Some Cornish dialogue may have been sung rather than spoken · Hymns sung (in Latin or English) as part of performance · Repetition Ÿ Repetitive scenes in Bewnans Ke may have been sung to music · Context · Form — Pueri sequence in Passio Christi, derived from hymn — speeches that describe characters as singing — some stanza types may be associated with music · Structure— speeches grouped in larger patterns that suggest a musical form — ‘refrains’ and textual parallels used to link adjacent stanzas in Bewnans Ke · Musical terminology appears in the dialogue

26 Word and Music in Medieval Cornish Drama 28 th Annual University of California Celtic Studies Conference 17 March 2006 Benjamin Bruch Harvard University


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