2 What is classical music? Classical music consists of not one style but manyMedieval:Renaissance:Baroque:
3 Roots of Classical Music Traced to ancient Greece and RomeClassical music was also known as “Court” music – very much a part of social life.Little is known about early music beyond the writings of ancient historians and philosophers
4 Historical WritingsDiscuss the purposes of music and some of the instrumentsArtworks from the eras also help show individuals playing various instrumentsHarps, drums and the aulos, a forerunner to the modern oboe.
5 Pythagoras and Aristoxenus Developed theories about the relationship among musical soundsTheir writings were the basis for modern Western musicOne of the chief contributions was the establishment of the octave as the basic mathematical unit in music.
6 Medieval Period or Middle Ages Earliest surviving music is dated to this time.Church assumed leadership role in most fields including the arts.Church music is known as sacred musicChurch music became the foundation of modern classical music.
7 PlainsongMusic with no strict meter or accompaniment, sung by a single voice or unison choir.Plainsong is monophonicA single melody lineSome composers felt restricted by its simplicityTo compensate, some adventurous composers experimented with parallel organum
8 Parallel OrganumTwo voice parts sing the same melody, one at a perfect fourth or fifth higher than the other.Early attempt at harmony
9 Musical PreservationToday when musicians want to perform music, they obtain a copy of the written notation called the scoreMusic of the medieval period had to be learned by rote and passed down orally to each successive generationWhat do you think happened to the music if it was not written down?
10 First Attempt at Musical Notation Early notation called neumesMarkings over or under the text to signal pitch changes.First to create a true system of staff notation was a Benedictine monk named Guido de Arezzo
11 Guido of Arezzo (c )Invented first true staff notation systemBased on a four line staff.The higher the placement of the note on the staff, the higher the pitchAlso invented solmizationA method of assigning a syllabic name to each tone of the scale to facilitate memorization.
12 Solmization Basis for our modern do-re-mi system of solfege. Used Hymn to St. John the BaptistEach note of the phrase began one tone or semitone higher than the previous phrase. He borrowed the first syllable from each of the six phrases to represent a scaleUT, RE, MI, FA, SOL, LAEventually UT was changed to DO and the seventh tone (SI or TI) was added. This method is still used today!
13 Rise of Secular musicNon-religious music that was written for social activities such as singing and dancing.Whereas church music was uniformly a capella, secular music features instruments as well as voices.Instrumental music was also set in monophonic texture.
14 Troubadours Poetic musicians Traveled widely, entertaining in the palaces of the feudal lords.Their songs told the news and other stories.They also frequently sang about love.
15 Hymn to St. John the Baptist Ut queant laxisResonare fibrisMira gestorumFamulituorumSolve poluriLabii reatumSancte Johannes
16 Hymn to St. John the Baptist Can you tap the beat?
17 Estampie – a medieval dance Can you tap the beat? Is the music organized into specific meter?What type of instrument plays the melody?Compare the musical characteristics of “Estampie” to Hymn to St. John the Baptist.
18 Guillaume d’Amiens Late 13th century troubador who sang of love. Performed the song Prendes I GardeLyrics tell of the secret meeting between two lovers.It is not known how troubadour melodies were originally performedOnly melodies, not rhythms were notated.
19 Prendes I Garde (Be on your Guard) Take care, lest anyone see usIf someone sees us, tell me.It’s just there in that wooded grove.Take care, lest anyone see us.That pleasant lass was looking after the animals,“Charming brunette, I would like to meet with you”Take care lest anyone see us,
20 Prendes Questions 1. A B A B A C A C 2. A B A B A B A B 3. A B A A A B A B A B C A D E A B1. Which of the patterns above reresents the musical form of the song’s eight phrases?2. Which of the patterns above represents the poetic form of the text?-Poetic form is called a rondeau – a fixed poetic form of the thirteenth century.