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European Christendom, 500-1300 I.Eastern Christendom: Byzantine Empire II.Western Christendom, 500-900 III.Crisis & Technological Change, 850-1050 IV.Western.

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Presentation on theme: "European Christendom, 500-1300 I.Eastern Christendom: Byzantine Empire II.Western Christendom, 500-900 III.Crisis & Technological Change, 850-1050 IV.Western."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Christendom, I.Eastern Christendom: Byzantine Empire II.Western Christendom, III.Crisis & Technological Change, IV.Western Xndom, IDs: Hagia Sophia, vassal, Three Orders model, Normans

2 Argument The creation of a decentralized system of government, called feudalism or lordship, in western Christendom, was a logical result of needs for local defense, German/Viking warrior culture and the military dominance of mounted knights.

3 I. Eastern Christendom: Byzantine Empire Wealthier More urban Orthodox Christianity Greek

4 Church of the Hagia Sophia, Constantinople

5

6 Eastern Europe & Russia converted by missionaries from Constantinople  Orthodox Christianity

7 Byzantine Empire bears brunt of defense against Muslim Armies: Protects Western Christendom

8 II. Western Xndom, Early Middle Ages A.Characteristics rural local Roman (Catholic) Christianity Latin

9 B. Mix of 3 influences 1.Roman culture

10 2. Germanic culture Warrior Aristocracy – most respected Roughly egalitarian society “King” was a war leader His band were tied to him by personal relationships & choice Non-military decisions made by council

11 3. The Church 1. Strongest centralizing structure in Xndom Priests Bishops Pope in Rome

12 2. Monasticism Monasteries Monks/nuns

13 Focus on converting Germanic kings, then people

14 C. Government: Germanic Kingdoms Weak central authority of kings Strong authority of local lords

15 D. Big Exception: Charlemagne’s Empire, c. 800

16 Charlemagne Strong & successful war- leader Personal charisma Support of churchmen and warriors

17 Pope crowns Charlemagne “Roman Emperor” on Christmas Day, 800

18 After his death, division & disintegration of his empire

19 III. Crisis & Technological Change, A. New Invasions Vikings Muslims Magyars

20 B. Viking Technology Ships Keel rudder

21 Viking Voyages: Plunder & Trade

22 Viking graffiti in the Church of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople

23 C. From Raiders to Settlers: “Normans” Charles, King of West Frankland (later France) Rollo, Viking Chief  Duke of Normandy 912

24 Political Solution Give invaders land Make their leader acknowledge the overlordship of the king Convert them to Christianity Result: New warriors; new energy Normans rule in Normandy, England, Sicily & become important Crusaders

25 William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy) attacks England in 1066 Bayeux Tapestry

26 D. New Military Technologies, ca The Castle

27 Peasants seek protection Local lord protects peasants from invaders Peasants become his serfs (bound to work his land) and give him produce & labor

28 2. The Stirrup

29 3. Mounted Knights Human Tank

30 E. Agricultural Inventions, ca Horse collar Heavy plow Result: Agricultural Revolution

31 F. Result: Big Shift in Western Xndom ca No more invasions More wealth from land Trade increases Population increases More power to knights 2 results: System of Feudalism (Lordship) expands Western Christendom starts expanding outward (from invaded to invader)

32 IV. Western Xndom, “Medieval Europe” A.Growth in power & influence of The Church, especially pope

33 B. Gov’t.: Medieval European Feudalism or Lordship ( ) Knights: Lord – vassal relationships Lord gives vassal a fief (usually land) & protection. Vassal gives lord military service & loyalty. Vassal pledges homage to lord.

34 Knight becomes a local lord, & rules fief (manor & serfs)

35 C. Three Orders model Those who pray clergy Those who fight nobility Those who work peasants (everyone else)

36 Reality Vassals often not loyal Constant warfare No external enemy Nobles & clergy take agricultural surplus from serfs.

37 D. Chivalry: “Civilizing” knights 1 st Stage – – Military prowess & loyalty 2 nd Stage – – Courtly love

38 E. Expansion of Xndom

39 Argument The creation of a decentralized system of government, called feudalism or lordship, in western Christendom, was a logical result of needs for local defense, German/Viking warrior culture and the military dominance of mounted knights.


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