Presentation on theme: "Development of the Circulatory System"— Presentation transcript:
1Development of the Circulatory System Development of cardiovascular systemDevelopment of lymphatic vascular system
2overview The cardiovascular system is derived from the mesoderm. It appears in the middle of the 3rd week.Blood circulation starts by the end of the 3rd week.Some changes take place at birth and in the 1st postnatal month.
3Key points Development of primitive cardiovascular system Development of HeartFormation and modification of aortic archesCirculation before and after birthCongenital Malformations※
5Primitive Cardiovascular System Oropharyngeal membraneCardiogenic area
6Primitive cardiovascular system Yolk sacmesenchyme cellsblood islandsCentral C Peripheral CPrimitive Blood cell Endothelia CBlood C VesselsEndothelial tubes of intraembryo and extraembryo are connected with each other by body stalk.
7primitive cardiovascular system Yolk sacmesenchyme cellsblood islandsCentral C Peripheral CPrimitive Blood cell Endothelia CBlood C VesselsVessels netprimitive cardiovascular system
8① heart tube：2 tubes 1 tube Primitive heart ② arteries ③ veins Heart tubes20d4wEnd of 4w① heart tube：2 tubes 1 tube Primitive heart② arteries③ veins
9① heart tube ② arteries ③ veins 2 dorsal A 1 aorta，many branches Aortic archesDorsal aorta20d4wEnd of 4wVitelline AUmbilical A① heart tube② arteries③ veins2 dorsal A 1 aorta，many branchesFew pairs of vitelline A1 pair of umbilical A6 pairs of aortic arches
10① heart tube ② arteries ③ veins 1 pair of anterior cardinal V A cardinal VPosteriorVitelline VCommon cardinal VUmbilical V20d4wEnd of 4w① heart tube② arteries③ veins1 pair of anterior cardinal V1 pair of posterior cardinal V1 pair of vitelline V1 pair of umbilical VCommoncardinal Vheart
11Three separate circulations vitelline, umbilical and embryonic circulation.
12Development of the Heart ►Development of the heart tube► Morphogenesis of the heart► Partitioning of Heart Chambers► Development of sinus venosus and differentiation of veins
13Development of the heart tube Cardiogenic areaOropharyngeal membraneCardiogenic area is anterior to the oropharyngeal membrane and the neural plate.
14Development of the heart tube Pericardial cavityBuccopharyngeal Mcardiaogenic plateAbout 18~19d, a cavity appears in the cardiogenic area--pericardiac cavityB. Ventral of the cavity is cardiaogenic cords--cardiaogenic plate
15Development of the heart tube Pericardial cavitycardiac tubeThe 20th dC. cardiaogenic plate becomes hollow--cardiac tube
16Development of the heart tube Pericardial cavitycardiac tubeThe 22nd dD. As the embryo folds cephalocaudally, the developing heart tube bulges more and more into the pericardial cavity.
17Development of the heart tube Pericardial cavitycardiac tubeThe 28th dE. The paired heart tubes merge except at their caudalmost ends.F. The tube remains attached to the dorsal side of the pericardial cavity by the dorsal mesocardium.
18Development of the heart tube Caudal endCephalic endHeart tubePericardial cavityG. Cephalic end Arteries，Caudal end Veins
22Morphogenesis of the heart Vein endCardiac tubeArtery endA. Part of the cardiac tubes mergedB. Cephalic end ACaudal end VThe 21st d
23Morphogenesis of the heart atriumventriclebulbus cordisC. Heart tubes almost mergedD. Three expansionsbulbus cordis(心球)Ventricle(心室)Atrium(心房)The 22nd d
24Morphogenesis of the heart truncusarteriosusE. The 4th expansion, the sinus venosus(静脉窦) appearsF. The truncus arteriosus(动脉干)appearsG. The heart tube starts to bendbulbuscordisventricleatriumsinusvenosusThe 23rd d
25Morphogenesis of the heart The cephalic portionbends ventrally,caudally, and to theright. The caudal partshifts dorsocraniallyand to the left. Form a‘U’ like structure, thecardiac loop(bulboventricular loop).truncusarteriosusBulboventricularloopSinus venosusThe 24th d
26Morphogenesis of the heart I. The bulboventricularloop keeps turning, theatrium shifts to thecephalodorsal of theventricleG. Two atria and twoventriclesAorticarchesatriumventricleThe 35th dThe normal heart shape was established,but partitioning has not completed
33Septum formation in part arises from development of endocardial cushion. Many malformations are related to abnormal cushion morphogenesis.atriaEndocardiaccushionventricleThe 4th w
34The 5th w Fusion of the opposing superior and inferior cushions divides theorifice into R and Laterioventricular canals.EndocardiaccushionL AV orificeR AV orificeThe 5th w
35The 4th month Left biscuspid Right tricuspid bicuspid tricuspid EndocardiaccushionLeftRightbiscuspidtricuspidbicuspidtricuspidThe 4th month
36Partitioning of Heart Chambers ►Division of atrioventricular canal► Partitiioning of the primitive atrium► Partitioning of the primitive ventricle► Division of truncus and bulbus
37A. Septum primum(原发隔/第一房间隔) grows down and fuses with the EC. B. There is a smallopening between the twochambers, foramen primum (原发孔)SeptumprimumforamenprimumEndocardiaccushionThe 4th w
38Early 5th w C. The foramen primum hasn’t closed. D. There are few small holes on the septum primum.Small holesforamen primumEarly 5th w
39SeptumsecundumE. Septum secundum (继发隔/第二房间隔)appears on the right of the septum primum.F. Small holes fuse to form the foramen secundum(继发孔/第二房间孔).G. The foramen primum closed.ForamensecundumSeptumprimumEnd of the 5th w
40SeptumsecundumForamensecundumH. Septum secundum extends downward to cover the foramen secundum, but leaving an opening, foramen ovale(卵圆孔)I. The septum primum covers the foramen ovale, serves as a valve.SeptumprimumForamenovaleEarly 6th w
41G. BloodL atriumRRL atriumK. After birth, the foramen ovale closed complete, and atrium is separated into R and L atria.
43Partitioning of Heart Chambers ►Division of atrioventricular canal► Partitiioning of the primitive atrium► Partitioning of the primitive ventricle► Division of truncus and bulbus
44The muscular Interventricular septum(室间隔肌部) grows up from the floor of the ventricle. ECLVRVInter-ventricular septumThe 4th w
45B. The muscular interventricular septum keeps growing up, an interventricular foramen(室间孔) remains. ECInter-ventricularforamenIV septumEnd of the 5th w
46C. Membranous interventricular septum(室间隔膜部) derived from the EC, closes the interventricular foramen.ECMembranousIV septumIV septumEnd of the 7th w
47Left ventricle Pulmonary artery Right ventricle Aorta The interventricular septum=muscular part+ membranous portionLeft ventricle Pulmonary arteryRight ventricle Aorta
48Partitioning of Heart Chambers ►Division of atrioventricular canal► Partitiioning of the primitive atrium► Partitioning of the primitive ventricle► Division of truncus and bulbus
49truncal ridge Truncus arteriosus bulbar ridge Bulbus cordis The 5th wtruncal ridgeTruncusarteriosusbulbar ridgeBulbus cordisA. Two spiral truncal ridges(动脉干嵴)/ bulbar ridges(心球嵴) grow from the inner walls of the truncus arteriosus and bulbus cordis.
50C. Truncal ridges + Bulbar ridges → aorticopulmonary septum AortapulmonaryAortico-pulmonaryseptumB. These ridges grow into the truncus from either side and fuse in the middle.C. Truncal ridges + Bulbar ridges → aorticopulmonary septum
51D. The ridges spiral neatly down the truncus until they reach the ventricles.
52E. Aorticopulmonary septum divides the bulbus and truncus into two channels: pulmonary trunk connecting to the right ventricle; aorta connecting to the left ventricle.
53F. As the same time, the division of the ventricle is completed.
54Development of the Heart ►Development of the heart tube► Morphogenesis of the heart► Partitioning of Heart Chambers► Development of sinus venosus and differentiation of veins
55Three separate circulations vitelline, umbilical and embryonic circulation.
65Atrial septal defect(房间隔缺损 ) Primum type involves the endocardial cushions.Secundum type involves septum primum or septum secundum.There is communication between the right and left atria which causes a left to right shunting of blood due to the lower pressure in the pulmonary circulatory system. Consequently there is a mixing of oxygenated (systemic) and deoxygenated (pulmonary) blood.
66Ventricular septal defect(室间隔缺损 ) Defect of the membranous septum, isolated or associated with other abnormalities. There is a massive left to right shunting of blood and pulmonary hypertension.
67Tetralogy of Fallot(法洛四联症) Unequal division of truncus and bulbus :a large aortaa smaller pulmonary trunk(1) Pulmonary stenosis(2) Overriding aorta (the aorta straddles the VSD)(3) Ventricular septal defect (VSD) of the membranous portion(4) The walls of the right ventricle to expand. right ventricular hypertrophy due to the shunting of blood from left to right.
68Patent ductus arteriosus(动脉导管未闭) Ductus arteriosus fails to be closed after birth. Blood will be shunted from the aorta to the lungs, eventually causing irreversible pulmonary hypertension.