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Development of the Circulatory System Development of cardiovascular system Development of lymphatic vascular system.

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Presentation on theme: "Development of the Circulatory System Development of cardiovascular system Development of lymphatic vascular system."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development of the Circulatory System Development of cardiovascular system Development of lymphatic vascular system

2 The cardiovascular system is derived from the mesoderm. It appears in the middle of the 3rd week. Blood circulation starts by the end of the 3rd week. Some changes take place at birth and in the 1st postnatal month. overview

3 Key points 1.Development of primitive cardiovascular system 2.Development of Heart 3.Formation and modification of aortic arches 4.Circulation before and after birth 5.Congenital Malformations ※

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5 Cardiogenic area Oropharyngeal membrane Primitive Cardiovascular System

6 Primitive cardiovascular system Yolk sac mesenchyme cells blood islands Central C Peripheral C Primitive Blood cell Endothelia C Blood C Vessels Endothelial tubes of intraembryo and extraembryo are connected with each other by body stalk.

7 Yolk sac mesenchyme cells blood islands Central C Peripheral C Primitive Blood cell Endothelia C Blood C Vessels primitive cardiovascular system Vessels net

8 ① heart tube : 2 tubes  1 tube  Primitive heart ② arteries ③ veins 20d Heart tubes End of 4w Primitive heart 4w4w

9 ① heart tube ② arteries ③ veins 2 dorsal A  1 aorta , many branches Few pairs of vitelline A 1 pair of umbilical A 6 pairs of aortic arches 20d4w4wEnd of 4w Dorsal A Dorsal aorta Aortic arches Umbilical A Vitelline A

10 1 pair of anterior cardinal V 1 pair of posterior cardinal V 1 pair of vitelline V 1 pair of umbilical V 20d4w4wEnd of 4w A cardinal VPosterior Umbilical V Vitelline VCommon cardinal V Common cardinal V ① heart tube ② arteries ③ veins heart

11 vitelline, umbilical and embryonic circulation. Three separate circulations

12 Development of the Heart ► Development of the heart tube ► Morphogenesis of the heart ► Partitioning of Heart Chambers ► Development of sinus venosus and differentiation of veins

13 Cardiogenic area Oropharyngeal membrane oropharyngeal Cardiogenic area is anterior to the oropharyngeal membrane and the neural plate. Development of the heart tube

14 A.About 18~19d, a cavity appears in the cardiogenic area --pericardiac cavity B. Ventral of the cavity is cardiaogenic cords --cardiaogenic plate Pericardial cavity Buccopharyngeal M cardiaogenic plate Development of the heart tube

15 C. cardiaogenic plate becomes hollow--cardiac tube Pericardial cavity cardiac tube The 20 th d Development of the heart tube

16 D. As the embryo folds cephalocaudally, the developing heart tube bulges more and more into the pericardial cavity. Pericardial cavity cardiac tube The 22 nd d Development of the heart tube

17 E. The paired heart tubes merge except at their caudalmost ends. F. The tube remains attached to the dorsal side of the pericardial cavity by the dorsal mesocardium. Pericardial cavity cardiac tube The 28 th d Development of the heart tube

18 G. Cephalic end  Arteries , Caudal end  Veins Pericardial cavity Heart tube Development of the heart tube Cephalic end Caudal end

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20 Pericardial cavity

21 Endocardial heart tube → endocardium Myoepicardial mantle → myocardium, epicardium Cardiac jelly → subendocardial tissue Wall of primitive heart tube

22 Vein end Cardiac tube Artery end The 21 st d A. Part of the cardiac tubes merged B. Cephalic end  A Caudal end  V Morphogenesis of the heart

23 atrium ventricle bulbus cordis The 22 nd d C. Heart tubes almost merged D. Three expansions bulbus cordis( 心球 ) Ventricle( 心室 ) Atrium( 心房 ) Morphogenesis of the heart

24 The 23 rd d E. The 4 th expansion, the sinus venosus( 静脉窦 ) appears F. The truncus arteriosus( 动脉 干 )appears G. The heart tube starts to bend atrium bulbus cordis truncus arteriosus sinus venosus ventricle Morphogenesis of the heart

25 The 24 th d H.The cephalic portion bends ventrally, caudally, and to the right. The caudal part shifts dorsocranially and to the left. Form a ‘U’ like structure, the cardiac loop (bulboventricular loop). Bulboventricular loop Sinus venosus truncus arteriosus Morphogenesis of the heart

26 The 35 th d I. The bulboventricular loop keeps turning, the atrium shifts to the cephalodorsal of the ventricle G. Two atria and two ventricles atrium Aortic arches ventricle The normal heart shape was established, but partitioning has not completed Morphogenesis of the heart

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29 Development of the Heart ► Development of the heart tube ► Morphogenesis of the heart ► Partitioning of Heart Chambers ► Development of sinus venosus and differentiation of veins

30 Partitioning of Heart Chambers ►Division of atrioventricular canal ► Partitiioning of the primitive atrium ► Partitioning of the primitive ventricle ► Division of truncus and bulbus

31 Subendocardial tissue → dorsal and ventral endocardial cushions → fuse → right and left canals

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33 The 4 th w atria Endocardiac cushion ventricle Septum formation in part arises from development of endocardial cushion. Many malformations are related to abnormal cushion morphogenesis.

34 The 5 th w Fusion of the opposing superior and inferior cushions divides the orifice into R and L aterioventricular canals. L AV orifice R AV orifice Endocardiac cushion

35 The 4th month bicuspid tricuspid biscuspid tricuspid Left Right Endocardiac cushion

36 Partitioning of Heart Chambers ►Division of atrioventricular canal ► Partitiioning of the primitive atrium ► Partitioning of the primitive ventricle ► Division of truncus and bulbus

37 The 4 th w foramen primum Septum primum A. Septum primum( 原发隔 / 第 一房间隔 ) grows down and fuses with the EC. B. There is a small opening between the two chambers, foramen primum ( 原发孔 ) Endocardiac cushion

38 Early 5 th w Small holes foramen primum C. The foramen primum hasn’t closed. D. There are few small holes on the septum primum.

39 End of the 5 th w Septum primum Foramen secundum E. Septum secundum ( 继发 隔 / 第二房间隔 )appears on the right of the septum primum. F. Small holes fuse to form the foramen secundum( 继发孔 / 第二 房间孔 ). G. The foramen primum closed. Septum secundum

40 Early 6 th w Foramen ovale H. Septum secundum extends downward to cover the foramen secundum, but leaving an opening, foramen ovale( 卵圆孔 ) I. The septum primum covers the foramen ovale, serves as a valve. Septum secundum Foramen secundum Septum primum

41 G. Blood R L atrium R K. After birth, the foramen ovale closed complete, and atrium is separated into R and L atria.

42 Partitiioning of the primitive atrium

43 Partitioning of Heart Chambers ►Division of atrioventricular canal ► Partitiioning of the primitive atrium ► Partitioning of the primitive ventricle ► Division of truncus and bulbus

44 The 4 th w EC A.The muscular Interventricular septum( 室间隔肌部 ) grows up from the floor of the ventricle. RV LV Inter- ventricular septum

45 End of the 5 th w EC Inter- ventricular foramen B. The muscular interventricular septum keeps growing up, an interventricular foramen( 室间孔 ) remains. IV septum

46 End of the 7 th w EC Membranous IV septum C. Membranous interventricular septum( 室 间隔膜部 ) derived from the EC, closes the interventricular foramen. IV septum

47 The interventricular septum=muscular part + membranous portion Left ventricle Pulmonary artery Right ventricle Aorta

48 Partitioning of Heart Chambers ►Division of atrioventricular canal ► Partitiioning of the primitive atrium ► Partitioning of the primitive ventricle ► Division of truncus and bulbus

49 The 5 th w Bulbus cordis Truncus arteriosus truncal ridge bulbar ridge A. Two spiral truncal ridges( 动脉干嵴 )/ bulbar ridges( 心球嵴 ) grow from the inner walls of the truncus arteriosus and bulbus cordis.

50 pulmonary B. These ridges grow into the truncus from either side and fuse in the middle. C. Truncal ridges + Bulbar ridges → aorticopulmonary septum Aortico- pulmonary septum Aorta

51 D. The ridges spiral neatly down the truncus until they reach the ventricles.

52 E. Aorticopulmonary septum divides the bulbus and truncus into two channels: pulmonary trunk connecting to the right ventricle; aorta connecting to the left ventricle.

53 F. As the same time, the division of the ventricle is completed.

54 Development of the Heart ► Development of the heart tube ► Morphogenesis of the heart ► Partitioning of Heart Chambers ► Development of sinus venosus and differentiation of veins

55 vitelline, umbilical and embryonic circulation. Three separate circulations

56 (肝血窦) 卵黄静脉卵黄静脉 门静脉 Ductus venosus

57 Primitive plumary vein

58 Formation and modification of aortic arches

59 Circulation before and after birth

60 Before birth Placental circulation: umbilical A. & V.

61 58% 80% O 2 saturation

62 After birth Umbilical arteries→ lateral umbilical ligaments Umbilical vein → ligamentum teres hepatis Ductus venosus → venous ligament Ductus arteriosus → arterial ligament Foramen ovale → oval fossa

63 胎儿出生后血液循环的变化 脐动脉:大部分 → 脐侧韧带; 近侧段 → 膀胱上动脉 脐静脉 → 肝圆韧带 静脉导管 → 静脉韧带 动脉导管 → 动脉韧带 ( 生后 3 个月左右 ) 卵圆孔 → 卵圆窝 ( 生后 1 年左右 ) 胎盘血循环中断 → 下腔静脉和右心房的血压下降 肺开始呼吸(肺充气) → 肺血管阻力显著下降 → 肺血流量明显增加 → 左心房的血压高于右心房

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65 Atrial septal defect( 房间隔缺损 ) Primum type involves the endocardial cushions. Secundum type involves septum primum or septum secundum. There is communication between the right and left atria which causes a left to right shunting of blood due to the lower pressure in the pulmonary circulatory system. Consequently there is a mixing of oxygenated (systemic) and deoxygenated (pulmonary) blood.

66 Defect of the membranous septum, isolated or associated with other abnormalities. There is a massive left to right shunting of blood and pulmonary hypertension. Ventricular septal defect( 室间隔缺损 )

67 Tetralogy of Fallot( 法洛四联症 ) (1) Pulmonary stenosis (2) Overriding aorta (the aorta straddles the VSD) (3) Ventricular septal defect (VSD) of the membranous portion (4) The walls of the right ventricle to expand. right ventricular hypertrophy due to the shunting of blood from left to right. Unequal division of truncus and bulbus : a large aorta a smaller pulmonary trunk

68 Ductus arteriosus fails to be closed after birth. Blood will be shunted from the aorta to the lungs, eventually causing irreversible pulmonary hypertension. Patent ductus arteriosus( 动脉导管未闭 )

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