Presentation on theme: "Assessment StatementsObj. E3.1 Distinguish between innate and learned behaviour. 2 E3.2 Design investigations to investigate innate behaviour in invertebrates,"— Presentation transcript:
Assessment StatementsObj. E3.1 Distinguish between innate and learned behaviour. 2 E3.2 Design investigations to investigate innate behaviour in invertebrates, including either a taxis or kinesis. 3 E3.3 Analyse data from invertebrate behaviour experiments in terms of the effect on chances of survival and reproduction. 3 E3.4 Discuss how the process of learning can improve the chance of survival. 3 E3.5 Outline Pavlov’s experiments into conditioning of dogs. 2 E3.6 Outline the role of inheritance and learning in the development of birdsong in young birds. 2 Assessment statements from: Online IB Biology Subject GuideOnline IB Biology Subject GuideCommand terms:
Behaviour The behaviour of an animal is the ways in which it reacts and relates to stimuli and the environment. Innate BehaviourLearned Behaviour Instinctive (Fixed Action Patterns) – genetically based Based on experience Not modified by the individualModified by the individual by trial and error Generally uniform: low variation in populationHigh variation within the population Unaffected by environment (in the individual)Highly affected by the environment Beneficial behaviours evolve through natural selection: survival and reproduction. Capacity to learn may be product of natural selection, rather than specific behaviours. Examples: Suckling instinct in newborns Migration of blackcaps Hunting instincts Examples: Acquisition of language & social skills Domesticated behaviour in pets Training dolphins to perform.
Learning for Survival Innate behaviours can only be modified as a result of natural selection, taking many generations. Learning allows for behaviours to be modified by the individual, in response to the environment, giving a survival advantage. Many behaviours have an innate component, such as birds learning birdsong, which can then be modified by learning. Associative learning through classical conditioning pairs stimulus with response. Animals can be conditioned to accordingly to positive stimuli (such as mate calls) and negative stimuli (such as danger). With operant conditioning, positive behaviours are rewarded (e.g. more food for foraging in one area), where negative are punished (e.g. pain as a result of dangerous actions). Observation can be used as a method of learning, as can imprinting: learning which occurs at key periods of development and susceptibility to learning. Human children learn by ‘Money See, Monkey Do’. Chimps don’t. By Carl Zimmer. ce/13essa.html?_r=0
How do you learn? TOK Think of instances of learning in your own life. To which of the following methods of learning might you attribute them? Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Imprinting Observation/ imitation If we think of learning as a ‘relatively permanent change in behaviour’, can you think of examples of behaviours or responses you have unlearned? Why? How might the role of the following affect your learning in a subject? Feedback Grades Demonstrations or labs Discussion Classically conditioning a human:
Use operant conditioning on yourself – try the virtual skinner box above to determine what the desired behaviours are in levels 1, 2 and 3.
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