Presentation on theme: "Behavioral Ecology Behavior-what an animal does and how it does it"— Presentation transcript:
1 Behavioral Ecology Behavior-what an animal does and how it does it Behavioral ecology-is a scientific field of study that looks at how behavior is controlled and how it contributes to survival and reproductive success
2 Proximate causes of behavior focus on Behavioral ecologists distinguish between proximate and ultimate causes of behaviorProximate causes of behavior focus onEnvironmental stimuli that trigger a behaviorGenetic and sensory motor mechanisms underlying a behaviorUltimate causes of behavior focus onThe evolutionary significance of a behavior
3 Ethology-study of animal behavior, particularly in their natural environments
4 Types of Behavior Innate behaviors Learned behaviors Automatic, developmentally fixedLearned behaviorsModified by experience
5 Innate Behavior Fixed action patterns (FAP) Sequence of innate behaviors that is essentially unchangeable & usually carried to completion once it is initiated/triggered by a stimulusExample: in male stickleback fish, the stimulus for attach behavior is the red underside of an intruder
6 Without a red underside, no aggressive response With a red underside, strong response is produced
8 ImprintingType of behavior that includes both learning and innate componentsGenerally irreversibleDistinguished from other types of learning by a sensitive periodLimited phase in an animal’s development that is the only time when certain behaviors can be learnedExample: young geese
11 Konrad Lorenz showed that when baby geese spent the first few hours of their life with him, they imprinted on him as their parent
12 Conservationists have taken advantage of imprinting in programs to save the whooping crane from extinction.
13 Many behaviors have a strong genetic component Many animal movements are under substantial genetic influencesThese types of movements are called directed movements
14 Directed Movements Kinesis Taxis A simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulusExample: Sow bugsTaxisMore or less automatic, oriented movement toward or away from a stimulusExample: many stream fish
15 -become more active in dry areas and less active in humid areas -automatically swim in an upstream direction
16 Animal Signals and Communication A signal is a behavior that causes a change in another animal’s behaviorMany animals communicate through odors by emitting chemical signals called pheromonespheromone perfume
17 Environment Influences the Development of Behaviors Learning-is the modification of behavior based on specific experiencesHabituation-is a loss of responsiveness to stimuli“cry-wolf” effect
18 Environmental Influences continued… Associative learning-learning to associate one feature of the environment with another featureClassical conditioning-learning to associate certain stimuli with reward or punishmentOperant conditioning-occurs as an animal learns to associate one of its behaviors with a reward or punishment
19 Operant learning-associate behavior with a reward or punishment
20 Behavioral Influences continued… Cognition-the ability of an animal’s nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information from sensory receptors
21 Natural selection favors behaviors that increase survival and reproductive success Foraging behavior-includes not only eating, but also mechanisms used in searching for, recognizing, and capturing food. It represents a compromise between the benefits of nutrition and the cost of obtaining food.Mating behavior and mate choice- include the seeking or attracting of mates, selecting a mate, and competing for a mate
22 Agonistic behaviors-are often ritualized contests that determine which competitor gains access to a resource, such as food or mates.
23 Social BehaviorsAltruism–occurs when animals behave in ways that reduce their individual fitness but increase the fitness of other individuals in the populationInclusive fitness-the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspringThe natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relative is called- kin selection
24 Social learning-learning through observing others
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