Presentation on theme: "OPTION E E3 INNATE AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR. A NIMAL B EHAVIOR Behavior – an animal’s response to stimuli in its environment capacity for behavior is Learning."— Presentation transcript:
A NIMAL B EHAVIOR Behavior – an animal’s response to stimuli in its environment capacity for behavior is Learning involves persistent changes in behavior that result from experience Most behavior is Behavioral ecology ( ) is the study of Natural selection tends to favor behaviors that contribute to the survival of an animal allowing it to pass its genes to its offspring
Behavior depends on the interaction of genes and environmental factors All behavior has a genetic basis, the capacity to learn is inherited Behavior involves all body systems, but depends primarily on
Behaviors are influenced by the human baby cannot walk until muscles and neurons are sufficiently developed) Behaviors are influenced by a young sparrow is hatched with a rough genetic pattern of its song but requires social interaction and listening to adult males to develop its ability to sing its specific song)
E3.1 D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN INNATE AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR. Instinctive – ___________ based Based on ____________ Not modified by the individual Modified by trial and error _________ through population _________ within population Unaffected by environment Affected by environment ___________________ are __________________ may be product of natural selection e.g. suckling in newborns e.g. __________ __________ of blackcaps response to predators hunting instinct Innate Behavior Learned Behavior
Many behaviors depend on (example – walking in newborn gazelles) Fixed Action Pattern (FAP) – I NNATE B EHAVIOR
Example: Egg-rolling in European graylag goose – when an egg is removed from nest and placed in front of goose, she will reach out with her neck and roll egg back into nest. If egg is quickly removed during egg-rolling, goose will continue head and neck movements even though egg is gone I NNATE B EHAVIOR
FAPs can be triggered by a – a simple signal that o ex: male stickleback fish aggressive response to red stripe Male will ignore the realistic looking fish with no stripe but attack the blobs with red bellies I NNATE B EHAVIOR
Animals learn from experience – Learning is a change in behavior due to experience Habituation – ex: pigeons in a city park learn by repeated harmless encounters that humans are not dangerous and don’t waste energy constantly flying away L EARNED B EHAVIOR
Imprinting – newly hatched birds imprint on the first moving object (even a human or inanimate object) – usually object is their mother Process of imprinting is genetically determined but the bird learns to respond to a particular animal or object L EARNED B EHAVIOR
Konrad Lorenz demonstrated imprinting in graylag geese: He divided a batch of eggs into two groups: 1.One group was reared normally by the mother and showed normal behavior (following mother around for food, shelter and protection) 2.The other batch was isolated from mother and hatched in an incubator Goslings spent the first few hours after hatching with Lorenz Imprinting occurred and gosling treated Lorenz as their mother These goslings became socially dysfunctional in adult life – they continued to prefer Lorenz to other geese and even attempted to mate with humans
T AXI S Plural, _________ An innate ____________ movement __________ (positive) or ________________ (negative) some stimulus. E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS.
___________ are model species for innate behavior studies: ex: positive _________ = move toward warmer areas of water positive _________ = move toward acids released by bacteria (their food) negative _________ = avoid high concentrations of harmful chemicals E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS. T AXI S
KINESIS Plural, ________ An innate ______________ movement in response to a stimulus. May be merely starting or stopping, changing _____, or __________ more or less frequently. Animals do not move toward or away from specific conditions, but since they slow down in a favorable environment, they tend to stay there E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS.
KINESIS _______________ in pillbugs (Porcello scaber) ______________________ altered as response to stimulus ___________ of testing chamber is adjusted and behavior is measured Floor of chamber has ______ Movement is video recorded for __________________ E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS.
KINESIS Orthokinesis in pillbugs (Porcello scaber) Video played back, with ______________________ counted as movement in the time period ______________________ calculated as number of squares crossed per second (mean of six runs) E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS.
KINESIS _______________ in pillbugs (Porcello scaber) ________________ altered as response to stimulus Same as orthokinesis, but with ______________ per unit time as the basis for calculation E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS.
In this investigation, pillbugs (P. scaber) were given a choice chamber test. One chamber contained _______ filter paper, the other _____. E3.3 A NALYZE DATA FROM INVERTEBRATE BEHAVIOR EXPERIMENTS IN TERMS OF THE EFFECT ON CHANCES OF SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION.
In the sample data, the overall movement of pillbugs is to the __________ chamber. When the experiment is repeated, results are consistent. Those innate behaviors that are ________ (such as finding moisture) give an individual a ________ and ___________ advantage. As innate behaviors are genetic, they are ______________, and proliferate in the population. E3.3 A NALYZE DATA FROM INVERTEBRATE BEHAVIOR EXPERIMENTS IN TERMS OF THE EFFECT ON CHANCES OF SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION.
E3.4 D ISCUSS HOW THE PROCESS OF LEARNING CAN IMPROVE THE CHANCE OF SURVIVAL. Innate behaviors are inherited from parents as _____. They develop by __________________ and thus are suited to better adapted species to its environment. Therefore, they increase an animal’s chances for survival. Learned behaviors develop as a result of __________. They enable animals to _________ their behaviors in response to changing environmental conditions. This increases the chance of survival by learning new behavioral patterns. While learned behavior itself is not passed on through genetics, the ____________________ may be. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cpgCQj-sgqk&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bXQAgzfwuNQhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bXQAgzfwuNQ The intelligence of crow http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nh9XL08Akwchttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nh9XL08Akwc Chimpanzee tool use
E3.5 OUTLINE P AVLOV ’ S EXPERIMENTS INTO CONDITIONING OF DOGS.
___________________ is a method of associative learning. Ivan Pavlov trained dogs to _____________________ to a stimulus, based on the dogs’ expected outcomes of the behavior. Classical conditioning results in an ___________________ to a stimulus (e.g. a bell ring) E3.5 OUTLINE P AVLOV ’ S EXPERIMENTS INTO CONDITIONING OF DOGS.
______________________ - automatic response to a stimulus (i.e. food causes salivation) _______________________ - does not elicit response (i.e. bell does not cause salivation) _______________________ - neutral and unconditioned stimuli applied together (i.e. dog associates bell with food, and salivates) _______________________ - Ringing the bell results in salivation, even without food present.
E3.5 OUTLINE P AVLOV ’ S EXPERIMENTS INTO CONDITIONING OF DOGS. ______________________ is another conditioning method proposed by BF Skinner _______________________: Reward desired behavior Ex: A rat is placed in a cage with a moveable bar. Random actions of rat result in it pressing the bar & rat receives food. Rat learns the association between pressing bar and obtaining food.
E3.5 OUTLINE P AVLOV ’ S EXPERIMENTS INTO CONDITIONING OF DOGS. : Reward a desired behavior by taking away a negative stimulus Ex: Electric shock in floor is turned off by rat hitting lever. Random actions of rat lead rat to hit lever, turning off shock. Rat learns to hit lever right away.
O THER L EARNED B EHAVIORS Insight learning – Most – seen in primates and some birds and other mammals also known as “” Playing – many young animals “play”, which
E3.6 O UTLINE THE ROLE OF INHERITANCE AND LEARNING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIRDSONG IN YOUNG BIRDS. Birdsong is a strong indicator of _____________________. Birdsong development is due to both _________ and ___________ behavior. This leads to ____________________ – usually the female selects mates based on their perceived levels of reproductive fitness. The basis of much birdsong is ___________, though needs to be refined with learning. Example: _______________ ability to mimic any sound in its environment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjE0Kdfos4Yhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjE0Kdfos4Y The amazing lyre bird
E3.6 O UTLINE THE ROLE OF INHERITANCE AND LEARNING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIRDSONG IN YOUNG BIRDS. Bird usually hatch with a ____________ _________ that prevents them from learning from the wrong species. _____________ takes place in the sensitive period early in the development (__________ learning). By listening and practicing the calls of the adult birds, the chick modifies its song to “______”. One reason why captive birds are not reproductively successful in the wild is that they ___________________ with the correct mature song.