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OPTION E E3 INNATE AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR. E3.1 D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN INNATE AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR.  Instinctive – ___________ based  Based on ____________.

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Presentation on theme: "OPTION E E3 INNATE AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR. E3.1 D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN INNATE AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR.  Instinctive – ___________ based  Based on ____________."— Presentation transcript:

1 OPTION E E3 INNATE AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR

2 E3.1 D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN INNATE AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR.  Instinctive – ___________ based  Based on ____________  Not modified by the individual  Modified by trial and error  _________ through population  _________ within population  Unaffected by environment  Affected by environment  ___________________ are  __________________ may be product of natural selection  e.g. suckling in newborns  e.g. __________ __________ of blackcaps response to predators hunting instinct Innate Behavior Learned Behavior

3 T AXI S Plural, _________ An innate ____________ movement __________ (positive) or ________________ (negative) some stimulus. E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS.

4 ___________ are model species for innate behavior studies: ex: positive _________ = move toward warmer areas of water positive _________ = move toward acids released by bacteria (their food) negative _________ = avoid high concentrations of harmful chemicals E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS. T AXI S

5 KINESIS Plural, ________ An innate ______________ movement in response to a stimulus. May be merely starting or stopping, changing _____, or __________ more or less frequently. E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS.

6 KINESIS _______________ in pillbugs (Porcello scaber) ______________________ altered as response to stimulus ___________ of testing chamber is adjusted and behavior is measured Floor of chamber has ______ Movement is video recorded for __________________ E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS.

7 KINESIS Orthokinesis in pillbugs (Porcello scaber) Video played back, with ______________________ counted as movement in the time period ______________________ calculated as number of squares crossed per second (mean of six runs) E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS.

8 KINESIS _______________ in pillbugs (Porcello scaber) ________________ altered as response to stimulus Same as orthokinesis, but with ______________ per unit time as the basis for calculation E3.2 D ESIGN EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE INNATE BEHAVIOR IN INVERTEBRATES, INCLUDING EITHER A TAXIS OR A KINESIS.

9 In this investigation, pillbugs (P. scaber) were given a choice chamber test. One chamber contained _______ filter paper, the other _____. E3.3 A NALYZE DATA FROM INVERTEBRATE BEHAVIOR EXPERIMENTS IN TERMS OF THE EFFECT ON CHANCES OF SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION.

10 In the sample data, the overall movement of pillbugs is to the __________ chamber. When the experiment is repeated, results are consistent. Those innate behaviors that are ________ (such as finding moisture) give an individual a ________ and ___________ advantage. As innate behaviors are genetic, they are ______________, and proliferate in the population. E3.3 A NALYZE DATA FROM INVERTEBRATE BEHAVIOR EXPERIMENTS IN TERMS OF THE EFFECT ON CHANCES OF SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION.

11 E3.4 D ISCUSS HOW THE PROCESS OF LEARNING CAN IMPROVE THE CHANCE OF SURVIVAL.  Innate behaviors are inherited from parents as _____. They develop by __________________ and thus are suited to better adapted species to its environment. Therefore, they increase an animal’s chances for survival.  Learned behaviors develop as a result of __________. They enable animals to _________ their behaviors in response to changing environmental conditions. This increases the chance of survival by learning new behavioral patterns. While learned behavior itself is not passed on through genetics, the ____________________ may be. The intelligence of crow Chimpanzee tool use

12 E3.5 OUTLINE P AVLOV ’ S EXPERIMENTS INTO CONDITIONING OF DOGS.

13 ___________________ is a method of associative learning. Ivan Pavlov trained dogs to _____________________ to a stimulus, based on the dogs’ expected outcomes of the behavior. Classical conditioning results in an ___________________ to a stimulus (e.g. a bell ring) E3.5 OUTLINE P AVLOV ’ S EXPERIMENTS INTO CONDITIONING OF DOGS.

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15 ______________________ - automatic response to a stimulus (i.e. food causes salivation) _______________________ - does not elicit response (i.e. bell does not cause salivation) _______________________ - neutral and unconditioned stimuli applied together (i.e. dog associates bell with food, and salivates) _______________________ - Ringing the bell results in salivation, even without food present.

16 E3.5 OUTLINE P AVLOV ’ S EXPERIMENTS INTO CONDITIONING OF DOGS. ______________________ is another conditioning method proposed by BF Skinner _______________________: Reward desired behavior _______________________: Punish incorrect behavior Example: rats and pigeons were trained to push levers and perform actions to receive food rewards. An electrical shock punished incorrect actions.

17 E3.6 O UTLINE THE ROLE OF INHERITANCE AND LEARNING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIRDSONG IN YOUNG BIRDS. Birdsong is a strong indicator of _____________________. Birdsong development is due to both _________ and ___________ behavior. This leads to ____________________ – usually the female selects mates based on their perceived levels of reproductive fitness. The basis of much birdsong is ___________, though needs to be refined with learning. Example: _______________ ability to mimic any sound in its environment The amazing lyre bird

18 E3.6 O UTLINE THE ROLE OF INHERITANCE AND LEARNING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIRDSONG IN YOUNG BIRDS. Bird usually hatch with a ____________ _________ that prevents them from learning from the wrong species. _____________ takes place in the sensitive period early in the development (__________ learning). By listening and practicing the calls of the adult birds, the chick modifies its song to “______”. One reason why captive birds are not reproductively successful in the wild is that they ___________________ with the correct mature song.


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