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Formation/basics of E1 Basics of PDH Basics of SDH Formation of STM Formation/basics of E1 Basics of PDH Basics of SDH Formation of STM.

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Presentation on theme: "Formation/basics of E1 Basics of PDH Basics of SDH Formation of STM Formation/basics of E1 Basics of PDH Basics of SDH Formation of STM."— Presentation transcript:

1 Formation/basics of E1 Basics of PDH Basics of SDH Formation of STM Formation/basics of E1 Basics of PDH Basics of SDH Formation of STM

2 Voice Coded in 8 bits/sample Voice Coded in 8 bits/sample A/D Clock 8000 Hz Clock 8000 Hz (8000 samples)X(8bit/sample) = 64,000bps 32 Channels each 64 Kbps E1 (TS0 to TS31) E1 (TS0 to TS31) Primary unit of PDH i.e. E1 PDH is almost synchronous. It is simply Multiplexing of E1`s. Sampling, Quantizing & Encoding (i.e. PCM) of Analog voice channels produces 64Kbps channel. 32 such channels multiplexed to produce E1 (the basic unit of PDH) PDH is almost synchronous. It is simply Multiplexing of E1`s. Sampling, Quantizing & Encoding (i.e. PCM) of Analog voice channels produces 64Kbps channel. 32 such channels multiplexed to produce E1 (the basic unit of PDH)

3 Formation of E2, E3… As basic unit of PDH is E1 E1=32X64Kbps = 2.048Mbps E2=4E1=8.44Mbps E3=4E2=16E1=34.368Mbps E4=4E3=140Mbps Disadvantages of PDH System: Not fully synchronous. Complex hardware Back to back multiplexing Less bandwidth More hardware cost If we want to get E1 from E4,we have to demultiplex it by going back step by step. i.e.1 st E4 is broken into E3, then E3 to E2 & so on, thus form a complex hardware.

4 TS0: Frame synchronization & Alarms TS16: Signaling & Alarms TS1 to TS15 & TS17 to TS31 : For Data TS0: Frame synchronization & Alarms TS16: Signaling & Alarms TS1 to TS15 & TS17 to TS31 : For Data TS0TS0 TS1TS1 TS2TS2 TS16TS16 TS29TS29 TS30TS30 TS31TS31 E1 Concentrated E1: 2.5 TS for 1 TRxUn-concentrated E1: 3TS for 1 TRxHybrid E1: 2TS for 1 TRx

5 E1 2.048 Mbps E1 2.048 Mbps Justificat ion bit C12 2.224Mbps C12 2.224Mbps Low path overhead VC12 2.240Mbps VC12 2.240Mbps Pointer TU12 2.304Mbps TU12 2.304Mbps X 3= TUG 2 6.972Mbps (i.e. 3 E1) TUG 2 6.972Mbps (i.e. 3 E1) (TUG2)X( 7) + (Pointer) TUG 3 49.536Mbps (i.e. 21 E1) TUG 3 49.536Mbps (i.e. 21 E1) (TUG3)X (3)+(High order POH)+( Stuffing) VC 4 150.336Mbps (i.e. 63 E1 ) VC 4 150.336Mbps (i.e. 63 E1 ) SOH + Pointer STM 1, 155.5Mbps STM 1, 155.5Mbps Journey from E1 to STM 1

6 E1 2.048 Mbps E1 2.048 Mbps Justificat ion bit C12 2.224Mbps C12 2.224Mbps Low path overhead VC12 2.240Mbps VC12 2.240Mbps Pointer TU12 2.304Mbps TU12 2.304Mbps TU12(Tributary Unit) X 3= TUG 2 6.972Mbps (i.e. 3 E1) TUG 2 6.972Mbps (i.e. 3 E1) (TUG2)X( 7) + (Pointer) TUG 3 49.536Mbps (i.e. 21 E1) TUG 3 49.536Mbps (i.e. 21 E1) (TUG3)X (3)+(High order POH)+( Stuffing) VC 4 150.336Mbps (i.e. 63 E1 ) VC 4 150.336Mbps (i.e. 63 E1 ) SOH + Pointer STM 1, 155.5Mbps STM 1, 155.5Mbps Journey from E1 to STM 1

7 Key features It is fully synchronous. It can carry circuit switched or Packet Switched both. All network element use same clock. Tributary can mapped or extracted directly from pointers. Different transmission rates in STM STM1: 155Mbps STM4: 622Mbps STM16: 2.48Gbps STM64: 10Gbps

8 PDH: All 17 E1 SDH: All 63 E1 1.1.11.2.11.3.11.4.12 1.1.21.2.21.3.21.4.2 1.1.31.2.31.3.31.4.3 1.1.41.2.41.3.41.4.4 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.3 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.7.1 2.7.2 2.7.3 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3

9 Prepared by: Krishna Mohan Fill free to contact Krishna.mohan.ec@gmail.com


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