Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

INTRODUCTION PDH & SDH On Job Training July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION PDH & SDH On Job Training July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION PDH & SDH On Job Training July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus

2 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Agenda Pre SDH (PDH) SDH The SDH Frame Frame Structure Overhead and Payload Analysis Tributary Units SDH Network Protection

3 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

4 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Multiplexing hierarchy The PDH high capacity transmission networks are based on a hierarchy of digital multiplexed signals: E.1 to E.4. The basic building block is the primary rate of Mb/s (E.1). This could be made up of 30 x 64 Kb/s voice channels. This would then be multiplexed up to a higher rate for high capacity transmisson.

5 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Four signals at the primary rate can be multiplexed up to the secondary rate, E.2, of Mb/s and so on up to a rate of 139 Mb/s (E.4). Thus the 139 Mb/s rate represents 64 x Mb/s signals and 1920 multiplexed voice channels.

6 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Developing networks The plesynchronous multiplexing technology, often called PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy), left no room in the signal structures for network management and maintenance functions. We are therefore left with no spare signal capacity to provide improvements in the signal transmission.

7 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus As networks developed inter-connection became increasingly complex. It required banks of multiplexers and large, unreliable distribution frames. It became clear that the original standards, designed for point-to-point links, were just not suitable.

8 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus

9 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Tributary access We want to have easy access to an individual tributary, in order that it may be re-routed. We cannot do this without having to demultiplex the whole signal down to the required tributary level. Costs go up as we demultiplex, and they then double because we have to re- multiplex the signal back up again.

10 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus No commont standard Before SDH there were no standards to ensure that equipment from different vendors interworked on the same system. Vendors can have their own unique designs which means we have to buy the same vendor’s equipment for both ends of the line. Ideally we would like to shop around for the most suitable equipment, without having to keep to the same supplier.

11 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus What we need Network operating companies have to provide faster, cost effective provisioning of customer circuits and services, as well as control of transmission bandwidth.

12 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH Definition SDH is a standard for ‘high speed – high capacity’ optical telecommunication networks ; more spesifically a synchronous digital hierarchy. It is a synchronous digital transport system aimed at providing a more simple, economic and flexible telecommunications network infrastructure.

13 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Advantages of SDH Designed for cost effective, flexible telecoms networking – based on direct synchronous multiplexing. Provides built-in signal capacity for advanced network management and maintenance capabilities.

14 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Provides flexible signal transportation capabilities – designed for existing and future signals. Allows a single telecommunication network infrastructure – interconnects network equipment from different vendors

15 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Where is SDH used ? SDH can be used in all of the traditional network application areas. A single SDH network infrastructure is therefore possible which provides an efficient direct interconnection between the three major telecommunication networks.

16 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Notes on SDH rates The most common SDH line rates in use today are Mbps, Mbps, 2.5 Gbps, 10 Gbps. SDH is a structure that is designed for the future, ensuring that higher line rates can be added when required.

17 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH signal structure The SDH signal is transported as a synchronous structure which comprises a set of 8-bit bytes organised into a two dimensional frame. The ‘Truck analogy’ is a popular way to help us understand the contents of the SDH frame.

18 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH FRAME STRUCTURE TRUCK ANALOGY Tractor Unit Payload Unit

19 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH FRAME STRUCTURE TRUCK ANALOGY contd. Virtual Container Section Overhead Payload Payload OverHead Multiplexer Section OverHead Regenerator Section OverHead

20 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus The Payload The contents of the container carried by the truck represent the real value. This ‘Payload’ is analogous to customer traffic, being carried by the ‘container’ within an SDH frame. This Payload ‘container’ supports the transportation of spesific tributary signals.

21 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus The Section Overhead What actually gets the contentsof the truck to it’s destination is the tractor unit. This analogous to the network maintenance and management capability carried by the SDH frame, known as it’s Section OverHead, or SOH.

22 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus The Section Overhead (SOH) provides facilities that are required to support and maintain the transportation of customer traffic Safely across the network. THE SOH is split into Multiplexer Section Overhead (MSOH) and Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH).

23 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus The Virtual Container Even if the container is loaded on to a different truck, there is a portion of overhead that always remains with it. This is known as the Path OverHead, or POH. The Path Overhead is directly associated with the payload capacity area, and together they form what’s known as the Virtual Container.

24 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH FRAME STRUCTURE STM-N FRAME STRUCTURE 270 x N Columns 261 x N Columns 9 x N Columns 9 Rows = 8 bits/byte

25 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH FRAME STRUCTURE signal frame transmission The principle for SDH signal frame transmission is: the bytes (8-bit) within the frame structure is transmitted byte-by-byte (bit-by-bit) from left to right and from top to bottom. After one row is transmitted, the next row will follow. After one frame is completed, the next frame will start

26 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH FRAME STRUCTURE SDH Rate ITU-T defines the frequency to be 8000 frames per second for all levels in STM hierarchy STM-1 Rate : 9 rows x 270 columns x 8 bits/byte x 8000 frames per second = Mb/s STM-4 Rate : 9 rows x (270 x 4) columns x 8 bits/byte x 8000 frames per second = 622 Mb/s

27 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus OVERHEAD ANALYSIS MSOH RSOH POH

28 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus OVERHEAD ANALYSIS PATH OVERHEAD  Path Trace message  Parity check  VC structure  Alarm & performance info  User channel  Multiframe indication for TUs  Path protection switching

29 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus OVERHEAD ANALYSIS PATH OVERHEAD contd. J1 : Path Trace byte B3: Path BIP  8 Code C2: Signal label byte G1: Path status byte F2, F3: Path user channels bytes H4: TU position indicator byte K3: Spare byte N1: Network operator byte

30 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH Multiplexing Structure STM-1 AU-4 TU-3 AUG-1 TUG-3 VC-3C-3 VC-4C-4 TU-12 VC-12C-12 TUG-2 ×1 ×3 ×1 ×7 × kbit/s kbit/s 2048 kbit/s Pointer processing Multiplexing Mapping Aligning AUG-4 AUG-16 AUG-64 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 ×1 ×4 Go to glossary

31 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH Tributary Multiplexing (34M) 34 Mbit/s to STM-N 34M Rate Adaptation Add POH 1 C μs VC3 POHPOH 125μs 1 85 Next page Packing Mapping

32 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH Tributary Multiplexing (34M) 1st align Fill gap H1 H2 H3 R ×3 86 TU-3 1 H1 H2 H3 1 9 POHPOH R R VC AligningStuffing TUG-3 Multiplexing 3 Same as for C4 Multiplexing route: 1X34M  1XTU-3  3XTUG-3  1XAU-4---One STM-1 can load three 34Mbit/s signals

33 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH Tributary Multiplexing (2M) 2 Mbit/s to STM-N 2M Next page 125μs POH 14 C VC TU TU-PTR Rate Adaptation Add POH Packing Add Pointer Mapping Aligning

34 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH Tributary Multiplexing (2M) × TUG ×7 R R TUG Multiplexing 1 9 Same as for C3 Multiplexing route: 1X2M  3XTU12  7XTUG-2  3XTUG-3  1XSTM-1--- One STM-1 can load 3X7X3 = 63X2M Signals Multiplexing structure: structure

35 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SDH Network protection Bidirectional Traffic  Traffic flow direction along the ring  Clockwise or counter- clockwis Unidirectional Traffic  Traffic flow direction along the ring  Clockwise and counter-clockwise

36 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Difference between Path and Multiplex Section

37 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus 1+1 Linear MS Protection Protection mechanism of 1+1linear MS protection system:  Concurrent sending is permanent bridging  Selective receiving is switching

38 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus 1:N Linear MS Protection Structure of 1:N Linear MS Protection

39 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus 1:1 Linear MS Protection Protection mechanism of 1:1 linear MS protection system:  Traffic flow after protection switching

40 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Two-fiber uni-directional path protection ring Protection switching mechanism:  Switching criteria Transmission quality of each individual channel Usually TU-AIS, TU-LOP alarms

41 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Traffic flow when network is broken:  Working channels=1-N/2 AU4  Protection channesl=N/2-N AU4 Two-fiber bidirectional Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring

42 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus APS controller:  Transition of APS controller status: Two-fiber bidirectional Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring

43 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Structure:  Four fibers  Working channels--S1,S2, carry normal traffic  Protection channels--P1,P2, protect normal traffic Four-fiber bidirectional Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring

44 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus SubNetwork Connection Protection Description:  Protection one SubNetwork Connection  Can be adapted to all networks

45 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Normal condition for unidirectional SNCP:  Concurrent sending (transmit end)  Selective receiving (receive end) SubNetwork Connection Protection

46 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Failure in working channels for unidirectional SNCP:  Concurrent sending (transmit end)  Selective receiving (receive end) SubNetwork Connection Protection

47 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus Protection Restoration:  Restoration time - 10 minutes (5-12 minutes) SubNetwork Connection Protection

48 On Job Training, July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus


Download ppt "INTRODUCTION PDH & SDH On Job Training July 2006 PT Indonesia Comnets Plus."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google