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1 Boundless Lecture Slides Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform

2 Using Boundless Presentations The Appendix The appendix is for you to use to add depth and breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and drop slides from the appendix into the main presentation to make for a richer lecture experience. Free to edit, share, and copy Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies of the Boundless presentations as you like. We encourage you to take these presentations and make them your own. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books, or make switching to our platform easier by building from Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they need to assign readings and assessments, monitor student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made teaching resources. Get started now at: If you have any questions or problems please

3 Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1,000 popular college textbooks. Boundless integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its website, iOS apps, Kindle books, and iBooks. To get started learning or teaching with Boundless, visit boundless.com.boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at About Boundless

4 Introduction Mendel’s Model System Mendelian Crosses Garden Pea Characteristics Revealed the Basics of Heredity Probability Basics Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at

5 Mendel studied seven characteristics of the garden pea plants: flower color, seed texture, seed color, stem length, pod color, pod texture, and flower position to develop his Laws of Inheritance. Genetics is the study of genes passed from parents to offspring. Genes are the basic fundamental units of heredity. Introduction Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at of-probability-94/introduction Appearance and genetic makeup of garden pea plant flowers View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability

6 Mendel used true-breeding plants in his experiments.These plants, when self- fertilized, always produce offspring with the same phenotype. Pea plants are easily manipulated, grow in one season, and can be grown in large quantities; these qualities allowed Mendel to conduct methodical, quantitative analyses using large sample sizes. Based on his experiments with the garden peas, Mendel found that one phenotype was always dominant over another recessive phenotype for the same trait. Mendel’s Model System Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at of-probability-94/mendel-s-model-system Mendel's Experiments With Peas View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability

7 Mendel carefully controlled his experiments by removing the anthers from the pea plants before they matured. First generation pea plants were called parental generation, P 0, while the following generations were called filial, F n, where n is the number of generations from P 0. The ratio of characteristics in the P 0 −F 1 −F 2 generations became the basis for Mendel's postulates. Mendelian Crosses Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at of-probability-94/mendelian-crosses Mendelian Crosses View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability

8 Dominant traits are inherited unchanged from one generation to the next. Recessive traits disappear in the first filial generation, but reappear in the second filial generation at a ratio of 3:1, dominant:recessive. In the F1 generation, Mendel found that one of the two options for each trait had disappeared (all offspring were identical phenotypes), while in the F 2 generation, the trait reappeared in 1/4 of the offspring (a 3:1 ratio). Garden Pea Characteristics Revealed the Basics of Heredity Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at of-probability-94/garden-pea-characteristics-revealed-the-basics-of-heredity Appearance and genetic makeup of garden pea plant flowers View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability

9 The Product Rule is used to determine the outcome of an event with two independent events; the probability of the event is the product of the probabilities of each individual event. The Sum Rule is used to determine the outcome of an event with two mutually exclusive events from multiple pathways; the probability of the event is the sum of the probabilities of each individual event. The Product Rule of probability is used to determine the probability of having both dominant traits in the F 2 progeny; it is the product of the probabilities of having the dominant trait for each characteristic. The Sum Rule of probability is used to determine the probability of having one dominant trait in the F2 generation of a dihybrid cross; it is the sum of the probabilities of each individual with that trait. Probability Basics Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at of-probability-94/probability-basics Role of probability in segregation of alleles and fertilization View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability

10 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Appendix

11 Key terms dominant a relationship between alleles of a gene, in which one allele masks the expression (phenotype) of another allele at the same locus filial of a generation or generations descending from a specific previous one genetics the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics, in particular chromosomes and DNA genotype the specific genetic information of a cell or organism, usually a description of the allele or alleles relating to a specific gene. hybrid offspring resulting from cross-breeding different entities, e.g. two different species or two purebred parent strains parental of the generation of organisms that produce a hybrid phenotype the observable characteristics of an organism, often resulting from its genetic information or a combination of genetic information and environmental factors probability a number, between 0 and 1, expressing the precise likelihood of an event happening product rule the probability of two independent events occurring together can be calculated by multiplying the individual probabilities of each event occurring alone recessive able to be covered up by a dominant trait sum rule the probability of the occurrence of one event or the other event, of two mutually exclusive events, is the sum of their individual probabilities true-breeding plant a plant that always produces offspring of the same phenotype when self-fertilized. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

12 Appearance and genetic makeup of garden pea plant flowers Based on Mendel's experiments, the genotype of the pea flowers could be determined from the phenotypes of the flowers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikimedia. "Punnett square mendel flowers." CC BY-SA 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY-SA 3.0http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Punnett_square_mendel_flowers.svgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

13 Mendel's Experiments With Peas Experimenting with thousands of garden peas, Mendel uncovered the fundamentals of genetics. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44474/latest/Figure_12_00_01new.jpgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

14 Mendelian Crosses In one of his experiments on inheritance patterns, Mendel crossed plants that were true-breeding for violet flower color with plants true-breeding for white flower color (the P generation).The resulting hybrids in the F1 generation all had violet flowers.In the F2 generation, approximately three-quarters of the plants had violet flowers, while one-quarter had white flowers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44476/latest/Figure_12_01_02.jpgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

15 Results of Mendel's Garden Pea Hybridizations Mendel conducted thousands of experiments and found the same ratios of offspring every time, regardless of which trait he examined. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44476/latest/#tab-ch View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

16 Role of probability in segregation of alleles and fertilization In a genetic cross, the probability of the dominant trait being expressed is dependent upon its frequency.In this case, both parents possessed a dominant and a recessive gene for the trait of flower color.The dominant trait is expressed in 3/4 of the offspring and the recessive trait is expressed in 1/4. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikimedia. "Punnett square mendel flowers." CC BY-SA 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY-SA 3.0http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Punnett_square_mendel_flowers.svgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

17 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Which is one of the seven characteristics that Mendel observed in pea plants? A) flower size B) leaf shape C) seed texture D) stem color

18 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Which is one of the seven characteristics that Mendel observed in pea plants? A) flower size B) leaf shape C) seed texture D) stem color

19 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Why was the fact that Mendel used "true-breeding" plants so important for the success of his research? A) It ensured that offspring always looked like parents. B) It made them easier to hybridize with other plants. C) It ensured that they could not self-pollinate. D) It ensured that recombinant traits would show in each generation.

20 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Why was the fact that Mendel used "true-breeding" plants so important for the success of his research? A) It ensured that offspring always looked like parents. B) It made them easier to hybridize with other plants. C) It ensured that they could not self-pollinate. D) It ensured that recombinant traits would show in each generation.

21 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Which of the following is a Mendelian cross? A) mating two true-breeding organisms with different traits B) mating two true-breeding organisms with the same trait C) mating any two organisms with the same trait D) mating any two organisms with different traits

22 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Which of the following is a Mendelian cross? A) mating two true-breeding organisms with different traits B) mating two true-breeding organisms with the same trait C) mating any two organisms with the same trait D) mating any two organisms with different traits

23 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Imagine you are performing a cross involving seed color in garden pea plants. What F1 offspring would you expect if you cross true- breeding parents with green seeds with those with yellow seeds? A) 100 percent yellow seeds B) 100 percent yellow-green seeds C) 50 percent yellow, 50 percent green D) 25 percent green, 75 percent yellow

24 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Biology." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://cnx.org/content/col11448/latest Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Imagine you are performing a cross involving seed color in garden pea plants. What F1 offspring would you expect if you cross true- breeding parents with green seeds with those with yellow seeds? A) 100 percent yellow seeds B) 100 percent yellow-green seeds C) 50 percent yellow, 50 percent green D) 25 percent green, 75 percent yellow

25 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Consider a cross where inflated pods are dominant and constricted pods are recessive. If you performed this cross and obtained 650 inflated pod plants in the F2 generation, approximately how many constricted pod plants would you expect to have? A) 600 B) 1950 C) 468 D) 217

26 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Biology." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://cnx.org/content/col11448/latest Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Consider a cross where inflated pods are dominant and constricted pods are recessive. If you performed this cross and obtained 650 inflated pod plants in the F2 generation, approximately how many constricted pod plants would you expect to have? A) 600 B) 1950 C) 468 D) 217

27 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity If two purple flowered (Bb) pea plants were crossed, what is the probability of obtaining a white flowered (bb) pea plant in the offspring? (B = purple allele, b = white allele) A) 1/2 B) 1/4 C) 3/4 D) 0

28 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity If two purple flowered (Bb) pea plants were crossed, what is the probability of obtaining a white flowered (bb) pea plant in the offspring? (B = purple allele, b = white allele) A) 1/2 B) 1/4 C) 3/4 D) 0

29 Attribution Connexions. "Introduction." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44474/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "genetics." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/genetics Wikibooks. "Human Physiology/Genetics and inheritance." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wiktionary. "genotype." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/genotype Wiktionary. "phenotype." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/phenotype Wikipedia. "true-breeding." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/true-breeding Connexions. "Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0 Connexions. "Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0 Wiktionary. "parental." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/parental Wiktionary. "filial." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/filial Connexions. "Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0 Wiktionary. "hybrid." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hybrid Wiktionary. "recessive." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/recessive Wikipedia. "dominant." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dominant Connexions. "Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0 Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/sum-rule Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/product-rule Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

30 Wiktionary. "probability." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/probability Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity


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