Presentation on theme: "Gregor Mendel “Give peas a chance!”"— Presentation transcript:
1Gregor Mendel “Give peas a chance!” How a monk learned about inheritance using a tasty vegetable
2Gregor MendelBorn in 1822.Gregor Mendel was a monk who taught high school and worked in the monastery gardens.In fact, he loved plants so much that he spent most of his adult life studying how certain traits were passed from “parent” plant to “baby” plant.
3Gregor Mendel Genetics: the scientific study of heredity. Considered the “Father of Genetics” due to his work studying inheritance.Genetics: the scientific study of heredity.
4Mendel and his peasGregor Mendel is most famous for his scientific study of pea plants.He chose pea plants because they reproduce quickly and produce large amounts of offspring.
5Pea plants have seven observable characteristics Pea plants have seven observable characteristics. Each characteristic has two possible traits.Characteristic Possible Traits1. Plant height Long or short stems2. Flower position along stem Axial or terminal3. Pod color Green or yellow4. Pod appearance Inflated or constricted5. Seed texture Smooth or wrinkled6. Seed color Yellow or green7. Flower Color Purple or white
7PurebredBy controlling plant pollination (fertilization), Mendel was able to create pea plants that were purebred for each trait.This is also known as true breeding.When they self-fertilize, true breeding parent plants always produce offspring with the same trait.
8Purebred Examples of True Breeding: A purebred Labrador bred with a purebred Labrador will always produce fully Labrador offspring. No Chihuahuas???A self-pollinating plant purebred for purple flowers will always produce offspring with purple flowers.A self-pollinating plantpurebred for white flowerswill always produce offspringwith white flowers.
9What happens if you cross two purebred plants? purple flowers x white flowers or wrinkled seeds x smooth seeds tall plants x short plants Labrador x Poodle
10Let’s take a look at flower color…. Mendel called the purebred parents the P generation.For each cross (plant “parents”), Mendel cross-pollinated plants who were true breeding with opposite traits.Example: the P generation consisted of a purebred purple flower plant and a purebred white flower plant
12Flower color crossMendel called the offspring plants the F1 generation (1 for 1st , F for filial- son or daughter)Plants in the F1 generation are called hybrids because their parents have different traits.What do you think Mendel expected to see when he crossed a purebred purple flower plant with a purebred white flower plant?
13All of the hybrid, or F1 Generation, offspring had purple flowers!
14Crossing two purebred plants In every case of crossing two purebred plants, one trait “won out” in the F1 generation.Examples:Purple flower color “won out” over white flower colorsSmooth seed texture “won out” over wrinkled seed texture.Why do you think this is???
15Dominant and Recessive Traits can be dominant or recessive!Mendel called the trait that appeared in the F1 generation (purple flowers in this case) the dominant trait.Mendel called the trait that did not appear in the F1 generation (white flowers) recessive trait.
16Did he end up with purebred purple flowers? What do you think happened when Mendel let plants from the F1 generation self-pollinate?Did he end up with purebred purple flowers?
18Dominant and Recessive Traits About 25% of the flowers in the F2 generation were white!Even though the F1 generation looked like purebred purple plants, they carried the trait for white flowers somewhere inside.Where was this white flower trait “hidden”??
19The traits are hidden in the genes! A gene is a segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein. The protein results in the trait.So….. Each characteristic = One geneFor example:There’s a gene for plant heightThere’s a gene for seed colorThere’s a gene for flower coloretc...
20AllelesEach alternative (different) form of a gene is called an allele.Examples:The plant height gene has two alleles, tall and short.The flower color gene has two alleles, purple and whiteThe seed texture gene has two alleles, wrinkled and smooth.
21In other words…Inheritance is determined by factors (genes) that are passed from one generation to the next.These genes can come in different forms called alleles.Law of Dominance: Some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
22For every gene, how many alleles do you get from each parent? This is a result of what process??
23From his research, Mendel came to two conclusions: 1. The Law of Segregation: Two factors (alleles) control each specific characteristic (gene). These factors (alleles) are separated during the formation of gametes (meiosis).2. The Law of IndependentAssortment: Factors (alleles)for different characteristics (genes)are distributed to gametesindependently. This means that theallele for seed texture isn’t dependent on the allele for plant height, etc.
24As humans, our alleles are what create the diversity among us!
25Terminology Alleles are represented with letters Dominant – The allele/trait that is expressed (T)Recessive – The allele/trait that is hidden (t)Genotype – The allele makeup of a gene (TT, Tt, tt)Phenotype – The physical appearance of a trait (Tall plant, purple flowers, etc)
26Genotypes and Phenotypes There are three possible genotypes:Homozygous Dominant (BB, TT, PP)Homozygous Recessive (bb, tt, pp)Heterozygous (Bb, Tt, Pp)Homozygous: Has two of the same allele.Heterozygous: Has one of each allele.