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Update on North American Ironmaking Joseph J. Poveromo Quebec Cartier Mining Company Fred C. Rorick Rorick, Inc ABM 2 nd International Meeting on Ironmaking,

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Presentation on theme: "Update on North American Ironmaking Joseph J. Poveromo Quebec Cartier Mining Company Fred C. Rorick Rorick, Inc ABM 2 nd International Meeting on Ironmaking,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Update on North American Ironmaking Joseph J. Poveromo Quebec Cartier Mining Company Fred C. Rorick Rorick, Inc ABM 2 nd International Meeting on Ironmaking, 1 st International Symposium on Iron Ore, September 12 – 15, 2004, Vitoria – Espirito Santo, BRAZIL

2 TOPICS Blast Furnace ironmaking Alternative Ironmaking Processes Future Prospects

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4 Problems of North American Blast Furnace Sector n External – EAF mini-mill competition, imports, environmental mandates n Internal – limited capital for modernization, high legacy costs, poor profitability n Consequences – reduction in hot metal, coke & sintering capacity – excess pellet plant capacity

5 Response of North American Blast Furnace Steelmakers n Non-technical – consolidation, reduce legacy costs, currency changes, markets n Technical improve raw materials, upgrade existing facilities to: improve raw materials, upgrade existing facilities to: increase productivity, reduce reductant rate and extend lining life increase productivity, reduce reductant rate and extend lining life

6 North American BF’s – Increased Productivity, Reduced Fuel Rates Key factors: fluxed pellets, improved acid pellets fluxed pellets, improved acid pellets improved coke quality improved coke quality higher levels of natural gas, coal injection higher levels of natural gas, coal injection high levels of oxygen enrichment – lower high levels of oxygen enrichment – lower cost oxygen-pipelines, on-site plants cost oxygen-pipelines, on-site plants higher blast temperatures higher blast temperatures furnace upgrades: charging, cooling, casting furnace upgrades: charging, cooling, casting

7 Extend Lining Life to 8 – 12 years + Enhanced cooling and refractory systems - intensive plate cooling, copper staves - intensive plate cooling, copper staves Remote repair methods Remote repair methods - gunniting, grouting, shotcreting - gunniting, grouting, shotcreting Hearth life extension Hearth life extension - North American carbon, coke quality - North American carbon, coke quality Burden distribution equipment Burden distribution equipment PW or MA tops on 25 of 41 furnaces PW or MA tops on 25 of 41 furnaces

8 Weighted (by Production Rate) Averages of Reductants by AISI BF’s (4) Hot Metal # of Reductant Usage, kg/tHM Production, Working Coke Coal Oil Gas Tar COG MT BF’s Lump Nut Total

9 Increased Furnace Productivity Furnace Hearth Productivity Burden Injectant Dia., M T/M3/day AK Middletown BF pellets,HBI gas Dofasco 4 BF pellets oil Severstal NA C pellets gas ISG. Sp.Pt. L BF sinter/pellets coal

10 ISG Sparrows Point Ispat Inland L Furnace 7 Furnace Hearth diameter, m Burden, kg/tHM Sinter Acid Pellets Fluxed Pellets Lump ore, siliceous ore, etc Reductant use, kg/tHM Large coke Small coke Coal Natural gas 1 0 Top gas utilization, % Slag volume, kg/tHM

11 Waste Oxide Processing n 7 Remaining sinter plants n Direct BF charging: BOF slag, pellet chips n Cold bonded briquettes, < 5% of burden n DR options, Severstal RHF plant n Landfill options

12 Coke Supply Challenges n US Coke Oven Capacity: 14 MTPY n Expensive Imported Coke n Maximize Injection of Coal, Gas, etc n Use HBI – ISG Circored Plant ?? n Rebuild Slot Oven Batteries n Heat Recovery Cokemaking - Indiana Harbor Coke Corp - Indiana Harbor Coke Corp - ISG Haverhill Coke Battery, 0.8 MTPY - ISG Haverhill Coke Battery, 0.8 MTPY

13 Development of Competitive Processes & Process Routes n Smelting reduction – Corex, HIsmelt n Direct reduction/scrap/EAF steelmaking route n Hot metal/scrap/EAF steelmaking route n Alternative (pig iron) iron/scrap/EAF steelmaking route

14 Development of Alternative Ironmaking Processes o large scale ironmaking - avoid cokemaking, sintering steps preceding blast furnace – most efforts have failed except for Corex – high capital cost? o large scale ironmaking - avoid cokemaking, sintering steps preceding blast furnace – most efforts have failed except for Corex – high capital cost? o small scale ironmaking - provide iron units to EAF mini-mill sector – only shaft furnace gas based plants ( Midrex, HyL ) so far successful in North America o small scale ironmaking - provide iron units to EAF mini-mill sector – only shaft furnace gas based plants ( Midrex, HyL ) so far successful in North America o process waste oxides at both EAF and BF- based steel plants – limited success o process waste oxides at both EAF and BF- based steel plants – limited success

15 North American Direct Reduced Iron ( DRI ) Production n Main process route in Mexico > 5 MTPY shaft furnace ( HyL, Midrex ) DRI n USA, Canada: < 2 MTPY DRI ( Ispat Sidbec, ISG Georgetown ); other facilities down due to high gas prices: AIR, Corus Mobile n North America major importer of metallics: HBI (Venezuela ); pig iron ( Brazil, Russia )

16 North American Shaft Furnace DRI Developments n Application of pellet coating techniques; increase bustle gas temperature n Midrex – OXY+ system n HyL – self reforming, hot charging of DRI ( HyTemp system )

17 EVOLUTION OF MIDREX FURNACE PERFORMANCE – Ispat Sidbec DRI Reducing O2 Nat. Elec. DRI Reducing O2 Nat. Elec. Production Gas Temp.Addition Gas Cons. Production Gas Temp.Addition Gas Cons. T/hr C Nm3/T Nm3/T kWh/T T/hr C Nm3/T Nm3/T kWh/T 1970’s ’s lump ore ’s coat pellets late90’s, O2 inj OXY

18 Coal-based Alternative Ironmaking n Iron Dynamics, Inc ( IDI ) – hot metal process to feed SDI’s EAF flat-rolled mini-mill, IDI is an RHF(rotary hearth furnace)/SAF (submerged arc furnace ) process – start with briquettes of iron ore/waste oxides/coal, produce DRI in RHF, then melt DRI in SAF – plant restarted late 2003 n Mesabi Nugget Demonstration Plant of Kobe ITmk3 pig iron nugget process

19 Coal-based Alternative Ironmaking n HIsmelt plant ( 0.8 MTPY pig iron ) in Kwinana, Australia – JV involving Nucor n Nucor/CVRD JV to build mini-blast furnaces in Brazil to produce pig iron for Nucor EAF’s in USA n RHF waste oxide plants – built at EAF and BF/BOF plants; all are currently idle

20 Role of Quebec Cartier Mining Company in North American Ironmaking n QCM mines iron ore in Quebec-Labrador Trough, with pellet plant, port facilities at Port Cartier on St. Lawrence Seaway. n Mt. Wright mining, concentrating: produce 13 MT; mining and upgrade 2.4 MT of raw ore at 32 % Fe to yield 1 MT of concentrate: specular hematite at 66 % Fe. n Produce pellets ( 8.7 MTPY ) in ( 2 straight grate machines, 464 m 2 ) for BF and DR use n Ship to Europe, N. America, Asia

21 Chemistry of QCM’s Mt. Wright concentrate and pellets Fe SiO2 Al2O3 CaO MgO Mt. Wright concentrate TiO2 P S Mn Blast Furnace pellets Fe SiO2 Al2O3 CaO MgO Fluxed Low SiO2 Fluxed Acid DR grade pellets

22 US Steelmaking vs. Off-shore slabs Advantages of existing blast furnace plants: fully depreciated plants fully depreciated plants high labor productivity, < 1 man-hour/ton high labor productivity, < 1 man-hour/ton local coal, equity pellet plants local coal, equity pellet plants Off-shore slab plants – added costs capital recovery capital recovery ocean freight ocean freight

23 AISI Actual – 2002 ICSTI’03 Forecast Blast Furnace DR DS* Blast Furnace DR** DS Blast Furnace DR DS* Blast Furnace DR** DS M tonnes # of BF’s M tonnes # of BF’s M tonnes # of BF’s M tonnes # of BF’s USA < Canada Mexico < < * IDI (RHF/SAF), HIsmelt, ITMk3 ** Midrex, HyL or RHF waste oxide

24 Conclusion - Key North American Developments n “Heat Recovery”Cokemaking n Blast Furnaces – high productivity, “endless campaigns”, high use of O2, pellets, HBI n Midrex, HyL DR – higher productivity, metallization: coated pellets, O2, hot discharge n Coal based alternative ironmaking – IDI, ITmk3 processes


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