2Handy Hints ________– above or upon ________ – around ______________– muscle________ – Within________- flesh
3Function of Muscle Tissue ____________________ – relies on integrated functions of bones, joints and skeletal muscles.Movement of substances within the body____________________ muscle – moves blood through the heart, blood vessels____________________ muscle – movement of blood and food through the intestinal tractSperm and egg through the reproductive systems and urine through the urinary system.
4Function of Muscle Tissue __________________________ body positions and regulating organ volume – help you stand or sit. Muscle closes off exit routes in certain organs like the stomach___________________ production – the by- product of muscle contraction is heat. Used to generate as much as 85% of all body heat.
5Structure of Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscle is bound by connective tissue (fascia), attached to bones and is under voluntary control.Fascia (ct) ___________ (ct) periosteum (bone)This is how muscle is connected to bone____________________ – a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue under the skin or around muscles.
7Structure of Skeletal Muscle Three Types of Fascia_________________________– closely surrounds muscle_________________________ – inward extension from the epimysium that divides muscle tissue into small compartments called fascicles (bundles of muscle fibers)Endomysium – surround each muscle fiber within a fascicle
9Layers of connective tissue allow: Independent movement of fibers within muscle nervesBlood vessels to pass through muscle
10Muscle Cell is a skeletal muscle fiber Multinuclear – more than one nucleus___________________ – cell membrane___________________ – cytoplasm composed ofNumerous mitochondriaParallel lying thread-like fibers called myofibrils
12Myofibrils are composed of 2 types of protein filaments _________________ – thick filament containing protein myosin with projecting cross bridges_________________ – thin filaments containing protein actin
13Structure of Skeletal Muscle Sarcotubular System – triad of skeletal muscle (3 parts)Sarcoplasmic reticulum (kinda like ER)– network of membrane enclosed tubules that run parallel to myofibrils. At the “A” band the S.R. enlarges to form a pair of terminals.
14Structure of Skeletal Muscle ____________________– run 90 degrees to the S.R. Function: store, release and reabsorb Ca in order to help activate or release muscle contractions.
15Structure of Skeletal Muscle tubules (T-tubules) – tunnel-like extensions of the sarcolemma that pass through the muscle fiber at right angles to the S.R. and between the cisternae. Function to transmit nerve impulse to all fibrils (open to outside)
16Structure of Skeletal Muscle ____________________________ are filamentous protein molecules contained in muscles. In the presence of calcium ions myosin and actin will slide past each other and form cross-bridges, thereby contracting the muscle.
19Structure of Skeletal Muscle Neuromuscular junction – where the motor neuron and the muscle fiber meet._________________________– modified sarcolemma; highly folded, many nuclei; mitochondria________________________ knob – where the end of the motor neuron branches and terminatesSynaptic vesicles - sacs in the axon terminals filled with chemicals.
20Structure of Skeletal Muscle _________________________– neurotransmitter released at a neuromuscular junction. Allows sodium ions to diffuse and produces a muscle action potential (results in a muscle contraction)__________________________– found in the synaptic cleft. It inactivates acetylcholine so the muscle can get ready for the next action potential
21Structure of Skeletal Muscle – 1 motor neuron and 10 or more muscle fibers.
22Skeletal Muscle Contraction “ ________________ Theory or Sliding Filament Theory of Skeletal Muscle Contraction”
23Origin vs. Insertion___________________________ – muscle attaches to a movable bone ___________________________– muscle attaches to a non movable bone Muscles work in pairs
24Energy Source for Contraction 1st source – ATP, enough in muscle cell to last 6 to 8 seconds. ADP + P + energy ATPCreatine Phosphate - molecule stored in muscle cells, used to produce more ATP quickly during exerciseCP creatine + P + energy2nd source – Glucose cellular respiration ATPO2 needs to be present3rd source – carbohydrates glucose ATPMyoglobin – stores O2 in muscle cells
25Creatine phosphate Creatine + phosphate + energy Lasts 5-10 secondsATP ADP +EnergyCreatine phosphateCreatine phosphate Creatine + phosphate + energyProvides energy for prolonged muscular activity as long as nutrients and O2 last. 1 glucose 2 pyruvic acid + Energy (ATP)Pyruvic acid + O2 CO2 + H2O + Energy (ATP)Pyruvic acid + no oxygen lactic acidAfter ATP is used upProduce more ATP during prolonged exercise/ good for short bursts of activity 100 m dashATPCreatine phosphate depletedImmediate source of energyGlucose (stored as glycogen)
26Formula for energy release Energy SourceWhen usedHow long it lastsFormula for energy release1stATPImmediate source of energyLasts 5-10 secondsATP ADP +Energy2ndCreatine phosphateAfter ATP is used upProduce more ATP during prolonged exercise/ good for short bursts of activity 100 m dashCreatine phosphate Creatine + phosphate + energy3rdGlucose (stored as glycogen)Creatine phosphate depletedProvides energy for prolonged muscular activity as long as nutrients and O2 last.1 glucose 2 pyruvic acid + Energy (ATP)Pyruvic acid + O2 CO2 + H2O + Energy (ATP)Pyruvic acid + no oxygen lactic acid
27Muscular Responses- all or nothing principle Threshold Stimulus – minimal strength needed to elicit a muscle contraction. How do we get a “graded response”? While individual muscle fibers will contract to their fullest extent or not at all. But because there are many motor units some are contracting and some are relaxing. Thus the entire muscle can contract a “little” or “ a lot”, such as gently holding a pencil or tightly squeezing a finger.
28Overworked MusclesOxygen Debt – muscular activity is great enough, O2 cannot be supplied fast enough so ATP is produced by anaerobic respiration.Muscle Fatigue – inability of a muscle to maintain its strength of contraction. Due to lactic acid increase (Ph decrease) causing fibers less responsive to stimuli. Begins to damage the sarcolemma.
29Isometric vs. Isotonic Muscle Contractions Isometric – tension increases, muscle length remains the same. Important in maintaining posture.Isotonic – tension remains the same, muscles shorten, used in movement. Both types are used in most body actions.
30Fast vs. Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers White Muscle Fibers (white) – fast contracting, fewer myoglobin, hemoglobin, and mitochondria than red muscles Have extensive SR so it can contract quickly due to ability to store and reabsorb Ca+, but fatigue quickly.
31Fast vs. Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers Red Muscle Fibers(dark) – slow contracting, contain myoglobin (iron and oxygen binding protein), hemoglobin, and many mitochondria which can produce ATP to remain contracted for long periods of time without fatigue.