Presentation on theme: "Lee Schipper Senior Research Engineer Precourt Energy Efficiency Center, Stanford University and Project Scientist, Global Metropolitan Studies, UC Berkeley."— Presentation transcript:
Lee Schipper Senior Research Engineer Precourt Energy Efficiency Center, Stanford University and Project Scientist, Global Metropolitan Studies, UC Berkeley EIA 2009 Energy Conference April 7 Washington DC Looking Before You Leap into A Model: A New Climate for Seeing Transport Energy Futures?
Precourt Energy Efficiency Center Stanford University A research and analysis institute at Stanford Established in October 2006 Initial funding: $30 million pledge by Jay Precourt Mission –To improve opportunities for and implementation of energy efficient technologies, systems, and practices, with an emphasis on economically attractive deployment –Focus on the demand side of energy markets –Energy efficiency: economically efficient reductions in energy use (or energy intensity)
Transport Energy Futures The Traditional Approach – Less Helpful for Seeing The ASIF Approach Data Nightmares –Our Own US Problems: We can’t count –What savings from dieselization in Europe The Blind Side – Transport Futures Trump Oil Futures –Mexico City CO2 Benefits – Oil and CO2 Savings No One Saw –Two Wheeler World in Hanoi – Sustainable Transport –Hyper-motorization in China (and India); Room on the Road? Conclusions –Tools and approaches for better views of the future
Congestion or Access? Is Our View of the Future Stuck?
WORLD CARBON EMISSIONS: TRANSPORT Roughly 35% of Transport Emissions in/around Cities
“ ASIF” Decomposition: Road Map For Saving Lesson : Attack All Components of Fuel Use and CO2- How Much Do we Even Know about the DC Metro Area? Air pollution, health impacts Global CO2
Key Issues in US Road Transport Models Activity And Fuel Economy Data Cars and Household Light Trucks – How are Numbers Made Up? Nat Household Travel Survey every (X) years – No fuel data DOT Table VMT-1 (by state) – how accurate are fuel sales and VMT? DOE Household Energy Consumption Survey- VMT but no fuel Trucking Table VM 1 Data on VMT and fuel by truck type – How collected? No medium or short haul ton mile data VIUS/TIUS Died in 2002 – how will we understand light trucks Why Is This a Problem? No on-road fuel economy data when they are subject of public policy Difficulties measuring short and long term changes in VMT Rising interest in VMT Tax as part of way to pay for roads It Could Be Worse: No VMT, Fuel Economy, or Consistent “Active Vehicle” Fleet Data for LDCs!
Where Did the Fuel Go? Our Own VMT and Fuel Accounts Don’t Match
Where Is the US in On-Road Fuel Economy? Hard To Tell What the Trend Is!
10 Saving Emissions From Transport – It Rarely Comes Down to Just Technology Traditional Technology – MPG or l/100km? –Less power, lighter materials, lower drag, CVT, cold cylinders –Gasoline or clean diesel hybrids –End to the power and weight chase? Other Approaches - Cost, Time to Deploy –City cars vs. long distance cars? –Plug in hybrids – most driving is for local, short trips –Fuel cells? Many cost, feedstock, materials challenges Alternative or Bio-Fuels – What are They Worth? –US Corn ethanol a dead end, other biofuels increasingly uncertain –True low carbon fuels not here, won’t arrive under present policies –Non-oil always possible, but always expensive and higher CO2 Do We Know How these Technologies will Perform? Do We Know How To Put These Technologies into Models?
Dieselization in Europe: Where are the Savings? Relative to Gasoline, Diesel Shows Little Energy or CO2 Savings Moreover, Driving Distances Larger (Schipper and Fulton TRB 2009) Source:` official national data
12 Opportunities in Other Modes Overlooking the System Effects? BRT – High Speed, Low Emissions –Articulated buses running in dedicated BRT lines –Parallel hybrid drive trains using diesel propulsion –Fill them up! Trucking – Important Globally –Improve freight logistics, reduce empty running –Promote inter-modalism –Improving efficiency of trucks Rail? –Building or strengthening freight networks - uncertain –Consider low-cost, medium speed intercity rail (tilt trains) –Improve intermodal access around rail facilities to boost usage Opportunities Are Great, but mostly from Transport System Improvements, not Technology
All Modes of Transport Will Evolve: How Many Of These Components are in Models?
Changes in Transport Fuel and Emissions: Improving Fuel Economy Not Enough What Shapes Each Component? Most Components Related to Transport Policy, NOT Oil or CO2
Best Practices for Sustainable Transport: Little Money, but Pricing and Political Will –Congestion Pricing Singapore Honda Accord Hybrid Two-Wheelers in Hanoi?? Mexico City Metrobus –Bikes in Copenhagen Real Biofuels in Sweden Mexico City Clean Bus Bus Platform Curitiba –Bikes at Bangalore Bus Sta.
Urban Mobility Patterns The Mobility Ladder LOWMIDDLEHIGHER MIDDLEIEA EUROPEUSCANANZ Car Two Wheeler Metro, Urban Rail City Bus Mini Bus, Taxi Walking, Bike Passenger-Km/year China
17 Key Question: Is this path of motorization good? Inevitable or avoidable? Source: EMBARQ Motorization and Economic Growth: The China Syndrome?
18 Creating Comfort from Chaos in Mexico City From South to North?
Bus Rapid Transit – Mexico’s 1 st Metrobus Line 260,000 people/day over 19km for US $80mn Lower emissions and CO2, reduced car traffic
Metrobus CO2 Changes by Component Source Rogers 2006, 2009
21 Mal-Asia? Jakarta and Dozens of other Asian Cities
Scenarios for Hanoi- JICA and EMBARQ Year Transport policy (JICA)HistoryPresentLet trends continueHigh Mass Transit Transport system (JICA)HistoryPresentTrendsBRT, Tram, etc. Public transport share1%6%14.5%30% Environment Emissions policy (EMBARQ) HistoryPresentDo nothingMediumDo nothingMediumAmbitious Emissions CoefficientCases EMBARQ I 1.35 x today 2020-I x Euro IV Euro V Euro VI Euro 4
Resulting CO2 Emissions Fuel Economy CO2 Differences Transport Policy Differences Fuel Economy CO2 Differences
Introduction: Basic Thesis About (Hyper)-Motorization in China Speed of Motorization leaving officials, walkers behind –Incomprehensible growth rate in car ownership –Very poor data on use, fuel consumption, etc –Even word “car” in Chinese poorly understood Little Policy Competency to Slow or Control –Glory of modern motorization trumping other concerns –Whole city sections rapidly transformed into asphalt –Over-reliance on “technology” – human beings not in picture “ Unintended” (or unknown?) Consequences –Burgeoning road fatalities (over half walkers, cyclists) –Air Pollution from vehicles rapidly replacing that from coal –Congestion now major threat to productivity, well being
25 EMBARQ’s Scenarios for China Base Case – China has Korean car/GDP ratio in 2020 – million cars, 12,000 km/car –8-8.5 L/100 km if no new measures –Closer to 2 mn bbl/day oil in 2020 Oil Saving Scenario – 40% as much oil, some CNG –Japanese/Euro level of fuel prices – million cars, but less driving/car –Fuel economy standards, some hybrids and CNG Integrated Transport - Livable cities with good transport –Much lower car ownership and use– avoiding the plague –Very small cars (incl. slow electrics, hybrids) to avoid space and congestion problems in cities –Serious BRT, car-use restraint, land-use planning
Sustainable Transport for China: Cars and CO 2 Emissions in 2020 Sustainable Urban Mobility Saves Cities, Fuel, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Cheap Two Wheelers, but No Sidewalks And Now The Peoples’ Car
28 Scenarios and Assumptions for India ( Transport Research, forthcoming ) Business as Usual (BAU) –Unconstrained development of road traffic and vehicle demand –Infrastructure is assumed to not be a constraint Energy Efficiency –Higher fuel efficiency Clean Two and Three wheelers –Cleaner fuels and two and three-wheelers –Increases in two and three wheeler modal shares –Reduction in all other types of private transport modes Sustainable Cities/Urban Transport (SUT) –Demand management and modern mass transit –Regulation of private car use reflected by reduction in modal share –Widespread implementation of BRT systems Extra Effort -- All of the above
India: CO 2 Emissions by Transport Mode
Lesson: Transport a Powerful Force Focusing on Fuel Misses Real Changes Cities, Transport and Land Use Changing 500 million more people expected in Asian cities by 2030 American model of sprawl being tried, but not working well Real space constraints more important than fuel prices? Private Motorization- Trends Continued? Hanoi model (two wheelers), Nano, Hummer or? Depends on Policy Future of freight levels, systems also very uncertain Present models too influenced by American experience Where Energy/Fuel Enters the Picture Fuel prices important to fuel efficiency, vehicle use Fuel economy standards an unknown but rising influence Fuel choices can be important if true, large scale bio-fuel emerges
Conclusions: Reframing the Transport-Energy Future Challenge is About Sustainable Transport A New Framing of the Issue –Oil and carbon externalities less than clean air, congestion, safety –Developing countries now in serious mobility trouble – oil 2 nd problem –CO2 is not a transport problem, but transport causes CO2 problems How to View CO2 and Energy Saving –Avoiding carbon intensive transport – a development issue –Developing good transport w CO2 co-benefits – not today’s mess –Then and only then estimate of reduced fuel or CO2/veh kilometer Tools and Data –Reasonable vehicle stock, use, pass- and tonne-km data (not easy) –Models of urban/rural, demographic, and income evolution –New approach to estimating “CO2 and Energy Saving”
32 Thank You Lee Schipper – Car that absorbs its own carbon and needs no oil? In Future: