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Y3D2 SBLT Tier 3 Intervention Design School Implementation Blueprints

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1 Y3D2 SBLT Tier 3 Intervention Design School Implementation Blueprints
****IMPORTANT NOTE FOR TRAINERS : An activity in this module requires the use of data from the teams’ school site. Teams should be asked in advance to bring: Copies of school master calendar and/or daily schedule School “resource maps,” if available Data for an individual student who requires T3 services and for whom problem ID and analysis has already been completed. This can be the same student from Y3D1 training or a different student. NOTE: It is very important that, prior to the day of training, all team members review the actual case study that they will be using. This advanced preparation will allow teams to make the most efficient use of the training time that is allotted for intervention planning. Completed School-based Implementation Plan sections (i.e., homework from Day 1) A collaborative project between the Florida Department of Education and the University of South Florida

2 Advance Organizer Y3D1 Content Review Skill Assessment Review
Integrated T1, T2, T3 Scheduling Review of Master Schedule & Resource Maps T3 Intervention Development Review of Randy - Comprehensive Intervention Plan Columns 1-3 Tier 3 - Comprehensive Intervention Plan - SBLT Data

3 Tier 3 Prob. ID & Analysis Essentials
This is a review of Day 1 – essential messages and critical ideas to remember. The essential Big Ideas in many ways link back to integrity of T1 and T2. The effectiveness of T3 is contingent upon the effectiveness of T1 and T2. The tiers are conceptualized as integrated services that lie on a continuum and not as discrete categories. During the Day 1 training we identified ways that a student in need of T3 support may come to the attention of a PS team. Unless the student is completely brand new to the school, s/he will have already been receiving T1 and possibly T2 services. Remember, problem solving doesn’t “start all over” at T3, but is a continuation of problem solving that was completed specific to core and supplemental instruction. It is essential to use fidelity data to determine, in part, the effectiveness of instruction. Specific to Tier 3, gap analysis is a confirmation that the student’s needs differ from his/her peers and are of such high intensity that an individualized instructional plan is necessary. Due to the idiosyncratic nature of intensive, individual student problems, it will be critical to have content experts at the table, including parents, to develop evidenced-based hypotheses from which to develop understanding of the problem. Problem analysis at T3 is first and foremost an evaluation of the fidelity of the T1 and T2 instruction the student received. At T3, the simultaneous focus on both fidelity of instruction and fidelity of the PS process becomes an even greater challenge and must be managed purposefully. As a possible summary for the slide: Effective use of Problem ID and Problem Analysis, at every tier, is going to lead to easier discovery of what instruction to provide the student. The issue becomes more about how to give those services when we develop a thoughtful and targeted instruction/intervention plan. Tier 3 Prob. ID & Analysis Essentials Tier 3 PS extends from previous PS at T1/T2 Don’t assume “lack of effectiveness” Gap analysis used to verify focus of instruction Effective hypotheses requires content experts Question: Why aren’t the T1 & T2 services we provided working for this student? PS model with fidelity at T3 3

4 Y3D1 Skill Assessment Review
1. For which steps did your team successfully apply the problem-solving process? For which steps did the team have difficulty? What factors helped or hindered the team when using problem-solving to address the student’s needs? 2. Why is it important to calculate the gap between the target student and the expected level as well as the peers and the expected level? What information does it provide? What challenges does your team face when calculating gaps? 3. Having data on peers for some content areas and skills can be a challenge. What can be done to increase the chances that peer data will be available at problem-solving meetings (e.g., Intervention Assistance Team, School-Based Intervention Team, Student Success Team, RtI Team)? 4. In what domains (i.e., Instruction, Curriculum, Environment, Learner) were most of your potential reasons (i.e., hypotheses) for why a student is not meeting expectations focused? Were there any domains that were focused on more than others? Were there any domains that weren’t addressed that you believe should have been? 5. What barriers exist to validating hypotheses by using data during problem- solving meetings? What can teams do to increase the chances that hypotheses can be validated at these meetings? Refer to supplemental materials from Year 3 Day 1 for the scoring rubric. If your district does not use Project skill assessments, consider what methods will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of training efforts/materials.


6 Tiered Model of School Supports & the Problem-Solving Process
ACADEMIC and BEHAVIOR SYSTEMS Tier 3: Intensive, Individualized, Interventions. Individual or small group intervention. Tier 2: Targeted, Strategic Interventions & Supports. More targeted interventions and supplemental support in addition to the core curriculum and school-wide positive behavior program. Tier 1: Core, Universal Instruction & Supports. General instruction and support provided to all students in all settings. This slide is simply to review and re-emphasize the importance of integrated tiers as continuum of services rather than as separate categories of services with separate problem-solving efforts. This visual emphasizes a fluid system of services and is a modification from previous depictions that represented the triangle as three distinct and separate colors of green, yellow, and red. Revised

7 Tiers of Service Delivery
Problem Identification I II Response to Intervention III Problem Analysis This slide is a review slide to again communicate the importance of “off-ramps” and “on-ramps”. What discussions have your trainers had or do they need to have about decision-points and the determination of when students will be provided increased instructional services/supports and when students supports will be faded? Intervention Design

8 Features of Integrated Tiers
ALL students receive Tier 1 Goal is improved academic and behavioral outcomes for all students Organized around levels of instruction and intervention that are matched to student need

9 Features of Integrated Tiers (cont.)
Interventions are designed to be coordinated with core curriculum Organizes educational resources efficiently and effectively Promotes prevention, early identification, early intervention Bullet 1: When working with students receiving Tier 2 and/or Tier 3 support, a team manages two sets of broad goals/evaluations: (a) How are students responding to the specific Tier 2 an d/or Tier 3interventions being provided; and (b) how are students progressing toward meeting Tier 1 expectations. The message is that the purpose of Tiers 2 and 3 is to improve Tier 1 performance and not merely demonstrate increases in their T2 or T3 progress monitoring data for supplemental/intensive interventions. Bullets 2 and 3 emphasize the importance preventing students from requiring supplemental or intensive services through early identification and effective Tier 1 instruction. These bullets also highlight the need for a well-developed infrastructure to support and manage the complex activities that will need to occur. Systems will need to be in place to allow staff to concurrently monitor student response to Tier 2 and 3 instruction and measure the degree to which positive response to supplement and intensive instruction yield improved performance relative to core instructional expectations.

10 Features of Integrated Tiers (cont.)
Student performance needs drive movement between tiers - up and down Endorse research-based instruction/intervention Successful implementation relies on highly effective teachers and related services personnel Refer again to the “birds-eye” view of Triangle on slide 7 to explain the first bullet about student data drives decisions to increases or decreases in the intensity of services provided. School teams will need to manage their daily practices and procedures, yet remain remain flexible and responsive to changing student needs. This can lead to a discussion about how the school schedule can impact the team’s ability to efficiently and effectively provide instruction matched to student need. First bullet – school schedule Second bullet – curriculum Third bullet - instruction

11 Features of Integrated Tiers (cont.)
Intensified instruction/intervention is provided to students in direct proportion to their individual needs via Tier 2 and Tier 3 This slide serves as a “segue” between characteristics of integrated tiers and increased instructional time for Tier 2 and 3 instruction. Tier 1 instruction is related to Annual Growth. Tier 2/Tier 3 instruction is related to Catch-up growth.

12 Annual Growth (Tier 1) All students
Year’s worth of progress for each year of instruction in core subject Relies on excellent initial teaching Perpetuates the four-to-six year range of incoming Kindergarten achievement (Fielding, Kerr & Rosier, 2007)

13 The 6-Year Range (Fielding et al., 2007)
“Graph shows the average fall reading scores of 1.3 million students nationwide from second to 10th grade using high to low quartiles (25%). The top line on the chart is the average reading score of the top 25% of students at the end of each grade. The bottom line is the average reading score for the bottom 25% of students. The graph indicates that most students of all abilities are growing approximately 5-8 points each year. The data indicate that those who are behind in second grade generally stay behind. Constructed from data provided by the Northwest Evaluation Association’s nationwide testing. Fielding, Kerr, and Rosier, 2007. (Fielding et al., 2007) 13

14 Catch-up Growth (Tier 2/Tier 3)
Students who are behind Catch-up growth is annual growth PLUS some Easiest to make EARLY Primary driver of catch-up growth is increased instructional time (Fielding, Kerr & Rosier, 2007)

15 Lynn Fielding, Nancy Kerr, Paul Rosier—2007
Kennewick study: Annual Growth for All Students, Catch-up Growth for Those Who are Behind Lynn Fielding, Nancy Kerr, Paul Rosier—2007 ISBN: How a school district in Washington met their goal of 90 percent of third graders reading at or above grade level. This slide may be accompanied by a brief background about the Kennewick School District. They set out to reach their goal in three years—it actually took them 11 years, but they did it!

16 Table Talk What is your school’s approach to assuring that students make annual growth? What is your school’s approach to assuring that students make catch-up growth? In order to prompt discussion, ask the participants: “If your team had no restrictions on how to allocate your existing resources and schedule to provide T2 or T3 services, how would alter your infrastructure or system to ensure annual growth as well as catch-up growth?” Encourage the teams to answer the questions on the slide based on current parameters and mandates governing the use of resources. Encourage them to determine what organizational or infrastructure components are serving as barriers to ensure either annual growth for all or catch up growth for those who need it. The goal is to get the team to focus on organizational variables they have control over and to use PS to address those implementation barriers. As a trainer it may be beneficial to assess whether team leaders/administrators have an accurate understanding of what is a district non-negotiable, and what is a “guideline” available for interpretation or modification?

17 In most cases… When students start school behind, they stay behind
Current remedial programs do not catch up lagging students Annual growth occurs, but very little catch-up growth occurs (Fielding, Kerr & Rosier, 2007) The authors found that, for the most part, schools were good at increasing student outcomes annually for all, but rarely do students who are behind actually catch up. This became the author’s compelling “why” for focusing on the provision of increased instructional time and supplemental services to support students’ ability to catch-up to grade level expectations. (see graph of 4-6 year gap across students).

18 The most cost-effective way to provide extended reading instruction to virtually all students is to lengthen the standard reading block and make direct instructional time proportional to need instead of available time slots. (Fielding, Kerr & Rosier, 2007) The authors found that, of all the variables that may be manipulated or resources that may be allocated, adjusting the proportion instructional time to the level of severity of the problem was the most effective solution.

19 Increased Instructional Time
Standard amounts of instructional time usually generate annual growth Students who are behind need extra direct instruction Increases in instructional time should be proportional to deficiency Salient points: Tier 1 is effective if every student is making one year growth in one years time. Tier 1 alone is insufficient to help students who are significantly behind to catch up. The most efficient and effective way to increase catch-up growth is through increases in instructional time.

20 Reality Check Students who are three years behind at the end of Kindergarten may require minutes of direct instructional time each day during first, second, and third grades to catch up by end of third grade.

21 Increased Instructional Time
Students who are 3 years behind need more minutes than those who are 1 year behind. Catch-up growth typically achieved by “running longer” and “running smarter”, not “running faster.” Direct instructional time does not include practice time, SSR, spelling, etc. (Fielding et al., 2007) This is a summary slide that captures the salient points from the Kennewick study.

22 Example from Annual Growth…Catch-up Growth
Calculating proportional increases in instructional time: Suppose a state has set its fourth grade reading standard at the 50th percentile. Suppose a student (Tony) finished second grade scoring at the 12th percentile. What will it take to get Tony to the standard?

23 Example (con’t) Assumption: With normal instructional time (reading block, e.g.), Tony should make one year’s growth/annual growth. Bad news: Without catch-up time, Tony will still be at the 12th percentile at the end of fourth grade.

24 Example (con’t) State standard: 50th percentile
Tony’s status: th percentile The difference: points Point difference divided by 13: years (Rule of thumb: On a national level, in elementary reading, each 13 percentile points represents approx. one year’s growth) Tony is behind by about three years—in other words, he is entering the third grade with the literacy skills of a student entering Kindergarten. Now that we know how many years Tony is behind, how do we determine daily instructional minutes necessary to catch him up? Rule of Thumb: “13 percentile points = one year’s growth” is simply something the authors used, based on a unit of measurement within their testing system, to obtain an estimate as to how far behind a student is.

25 Example (con’t) Calculating instructional minutes:
Daily minutes for annual 3rd gr. growth: Daily minutes for annual 4th gr. growth: Additional daily minutes to make three additional years of growth: Total 3rd/4th grade daily minutes: In this example, reading block lasts 80 minutes. Equates to approximately 200 minutes of daily instruction in reading at each of 3rd and 4th grades for Tony to catch up to his peers by end of 4th grade.

26 Example (con’t) Dividing the total minutes between third and fourth grade shows that Tony needs 200 minutes of direct reading instruction in both third and fourth grades to reach the 50th percentile by the end of fourth grade. Example taken from Annual Growth…Catch-up Growth, Fielding et al., 2007) Another way to do the math is—knowing Tony must make normal growth each year plus another 1.5 years each year (three years behind divided by two), his direct instructional time must be 1 x 80 minutes for annual growth plus 1.5 x 80 minutes for catch-up growth, or a total of 200 minutes a day during third and fourth grades. Note: Of course, Tony may learn more quickly as he gains skills and confidence, or with a more skillful teachers or smaller instructional group, etc. Proper assessment will identify actual growth achieved, allowing quick adjustments in instructional time.

27 Table Talk How would you provide for a student who needs 200 minutes of daily, direct reading instruction in order to make annual and catch-up growth? This slide will generate some interesting reactions and conversation. If teams say this cannot be done…encourage teams to explore “why” by having them apply the PS process to generate hypotheses or perceived barriers for “why” they feel it cannot be done. Then have them explore possible solutions for reducing the barriers to providing a student with this amount of direct instruction.

28 Scheduling Considerations
Common time for reading blocks vs. Staggered time for reading blocks Pros and Cons? This is a transition slide from a discussion of the Kennewick experience to a discussion of how school schedules can impact a team’s ability to support all students who need T2 or T3 services matched to their level of instructional need. The discussion should be a good example of alterable variables. Also, remind teams that if time and support are held constant, then “learning” will be the variable—meaning some students will learn and some will not. Rather, we need to hold “learning” as the constant, and adjust time and support accordingly.

29 Example of Staggered Reading Blocks with “Walk and Read” (Sarasota County)
Team Reading Writing Math Science/SS Special Area Lunch K 8:45-10:30 10:30-11:30 1:35-2:35 12:15-12:50 12:50-1:35 11:30-12:15 1 12-1 1-2 2-2:30 11:15-12 10:30-11:15 2 10:30-12:15 9:45-10:30 8:45-9:45 1:15-1:40 1:40-2:25 12:30-1:15 3 9:30-10:30 8:45-9:30 12:15-1 4 12:45-2:30 8:45-9:35 10:20-11:20 11:20-11:55 9:35-10:20 11:55-12:40 5 9:45-10:25 11:50-12:35 10:25-11:10 11:10-11:50 The sample schedule is from Sarasota. This schedule illustrates the reading blocks staggered to better utilize personnel and an extended reading block so that the children can receive interventions at the end of the reading block. This is also an example of “walk to read” ensuring that the neediest children are in smaller groups and they are with the teachers with the most specialized knowledge/training.

30 Example of School Level Schedule
Volusia County This is a sample schedule from Volusia County. On this schedule you can see the dark green is whole group reading instruction, lighter green is small group reading instruction, and red is intervention. The reading blocks are staggered across the day and grade levels and the intervention blocks are separate from the reading blocks.

31 Example of Grade Level Schedule
This is an example completed by grade vs. whole school from Orange County. This is an example of the intervention block scheduled as separate block from the reading block.

32 Kennewick study: The schools tried more time. It worked. They kept on doing it. They saw direct correlation between increased instructional time and reading growth. Improved reading skills positively impacted math scores. Often, participants may argue that too much time spent on direct instruction in reading takes away from development of other important academic skills. The bolded bullet provides good information to teams—that focusing on reading improved math scores at a rate similar to reading scores.

33 “Students must read well to do well
“Students must read well to do well. It matters little what else they learn in elementary school if they do not learn to read at grade level.” (Fielding et al., 2007) What traditional assumptions about the Master Schedule does this viewpoint challenge?

34 Scheduling Exercise Using your school’s Master Schedule and Resource maps, consider: Does your schedule allow for an integrated tiered approach? If the typical school day has 375 minutes, how many of those are spent in direct instructional time at your school?

35 Scheduling Exercise (con’t)
3) Are changes to the Master Schedule required in order to provide intensified instruction in direct proportion to individual needs at Tiers 2 and 3? If so, what changes are needed?

Designing Individualized, Intensive Instruction A good segue to this section is, “With a new perspective now on providing direct instruction proportional to student need, let’s look at designing Tier 3 interventions.” TIER 3 INTERVENTION DESIGN

37 What do we know about Tier 3 Instruction?
Intensive - increase time - narrow focus - reduce group size Individualized Student intensely behind and/or not sufficiently responsive to core and strategic Small percentage of students This slide provides a good opportunity to review “intensely behind” and “not-responsive.” Intensely behind refers to a large discrepancy between current level of performance and expected level of performance (aka “way behind”) and given the provision of core instruction as well as supplemental intervention, the student fails to make improvement.

38 What do we know about Intervention Design and …
its relationship to Problem Analysis? evidence-based hypotheses? the progression from prediction statement? specificity? Pose questions on slide to group. Time invested in problem analysis results in an intervention with a greater likelihood of improving student performance. If the hypothesis is evidenced-based then the intervention will be evidence-based. A prediction statement based on a verified hypothesis creates the basis of an intervention plan. The greater the specificity of the plan, the more likely it will be that the instruction will be implemented with fidelity. 38

39 Problem Analysis Intervention Design
Hypothesis Prediction Problem Analysis Intervention Design Most participants will have seen this slide before. In terms of Intervention Design, the visual is an important reminder of how critical Problem Analysis is within the problem solving process and the development of an effective intervention. A validated hypothesis and corresponding prediction statement provide the bridge between “why is the problem occurring?” and “what are we going to do about it?” The problem is occurring because ______________. If ___________ would occur, then the problem would be reduced. 39

40 Intervention Selection/Design & Implementation in Context
Evaluate Intervention Effectiveness Analyze the Problem Monitor Progress Identify the Problem Select/Design Intervention Implement Intervention J L Timeline 40

41 The purpose of Intervention is to create an
Problem Definition & Problem Analysis have revealed information the problem solving team will use to determine what and how the students need to be taught. The purpose of Intervention is to create an instructional match Matching an intervention to the students’ instructional needs is a priority. 41

42 Measurement Frequency
More Less Measurement Frequency Measurement Precision Evidence Base Measurement Focus Group Size Depth of Problem Analysis A much broader research base exists for Tier One and standard protocol interventions than for individual student interventions. Therefore, when designing intensive (Tier 3) interventions, a team may need to rely upon careful progress monitoring to provide the necessary evidence of what does and does not work when comes to skill remediation. So, if the research base relating to an individual’s specific difficulty is sparse, we have to create our own evidence of effectiveness through careful progress monitoring and use of an in-depth PS approach, with specific focus on Problem Analysis. Instructional Time Less More 42

43 Principles of Intervention Design
Intervention should be designed to: Adjust what is being taught and / or how it is taught This slide reiterates the importance of creating an instructional match—marrying student need to the appropriate intervention. 43

44 Principles of Intervention Design
Intervention is… Planful- procedures to be applied are specified clearly and completely Environmentally Focused- actions taken modify the environment not the student Goal Directed- the team writes an ambitious, yet attainable goal statement prior to intervention design . 44

45 Designing an Intervention Plan
Person(s) Responsible: These should include names of those implementing the intervention, supporting the intervention, collecting the data and making decisions about the effectiveness of the intervention. Targeted skills & Instructional strategies: Specific information about What & How to teach here Implementation Arrangements: Determine: Where, When-(frequency, length of time), Materials Measurement Strategy: Measurement conditions (how, what, where, monitoring schedule) Decision-making Plan Determine frequency of data collection, number of data points/decision rule Note : “Implementation Arrangements” is where teams would identify the supports/resources needed to facilitate effective implementation of the plan (i.e., fidelity). 45

46 Comprehensive Intervention Plan Development
This example of a document for planning an intervention and serves as a summary of the previous slides. 46

47 Once a team has developed and come to consensus about what to do for a student (i.e., developed a plan), they must consider whether the school schedule and similar infrastructures allow for the plan to be implemented with sufficient fidelity and for the length of time needed to support the plan/student? “…the key to providing tiered instruction lies in the establishment of a workable schedule that maximizes school personnel resources and a high degree of collaboration among all members of the school staff. In many schools using RTI models, the assignment of specific blocks of time each day devoted to tiered instruction proves to be a workable mechanism for organization.” “In Figure 2 the school schedule is for implementing RTI for reading only in an elementary school. A block of 30 minutes identified as "Tier time" (blue) is scheduled each day for each grade, including additional periods labeled "X-time" used for students at Tier 3 only. The schedule assigns specific teachers to each block, with general education teachers assigned mostly to Tier 1 (green), reading specialists typically assigned to Tier 2 (yellow) and Tier 3 (red), and special education teachers assigned to Tier 3. General education teachers trained on the delivery of specific instructional programs are also periodically assigned to Tier 2. The are assigned times each week when progress-monitoring data (grey) would be collected on students in Tiers 2 and 3…”   “During "tier time," those students currently at benchmark are grouped together and teachers design instructional lessons that are viewed as enrichment to the core reading program. These groups are usually as large as or larger than the regular classroom size and can range up to 20 students. Teachers are encouraged to be creative and add dimensions of instructional lessons that are standards aligned to the core curriculum but may go beyond the existing required 90 minutes of core reading instruction delivered to all students. By dividing the entire grade into tiered instruction, the model provides to students who are already achieving at benchmark levels opportunities for enrichment that go beyond the core instructional program...” From “Tiered Instruction and Intervention in a Response-to-Intervention Model” by Ed Shapiro Available at: 47

48 Comprehensive Intervention Plan - Randy
Review the first three columns of Randy’s Comprehensive Intervention Plan. Emphasize the need for specific detail regarding Who, What, When, and Where entries. Stress that the more specific the plans are, the more likely it is that the intervention will be carried out with fidelity. Also, be clear that the Support Plan is created to structure support for the person implementing the instruction, not the student.

49 Comprehensive Intervention Plan - Your Student
During this activity participants use their own data to complete the first three columns of a Comprehensive Intervention Plan. These will be collected and evaluated as Skill Assessments.

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