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TC shaft motions virtual tool January, 2011 Luis San Andrés Mast-Childs Tribology Professor Texas A&M University, Turbomachinery Laboratory Supported by.

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Presentation on theme: "TC shaft motions virtual tool January, 2011 Luis San Andrés Mast-Childs Tribology Professor Texas A&M University, Turbomachinery Laboratory Supported by."— Presentation transcript:

1 TC shaft motions virtual tool January, 2011 Luis San Andrés Mast-Childs Tribology Professor Texas A&M University, Turbomachinery Laboratory Supported by Honeywell Turbocharger Technologies (HTT) ( ) Vehicle Turbocharger Nonlinear Rotordynamics Modeling and Experimental Validation Research Progress

2 TC shaft motions virtual tool Overview Introduction to turbocharger rotordynamics Experimental facilities Development of predictive models (Virtual Tool) Comparisons predictions vs test data Closure

3 TC shaft motions virtual tool Increase internal combustion (IC) engine power output by forcing more air into cylinder Aid in producing smaller, more fuel-efficient engines with larger power outputs Turbochargers

4 TC shaft motions virtual tool RBS Fully Floating Bearing RBS Semi Floating Bearing RBS Ball Bearing RBS: TC Rotor Bearing System(s) Increased IC engine performance & efficiency demands of robust & turbocharging solutions The driver:

5 TC shaft motions virtual tool Bearing types Shaft Ball Bearing Squeeze Film Inner Race Locking Pin Outer Race Ball-Bearing Shaft Inner Film Outer Film Oil Feed Hole Floating Ring Locking Pin Semi-Floating Ring Bearing (SFRB) Floating Ring Bearing (FRB) Low shaft motion Relatively expensive Limited lifespan Economic Longer life span Prone to subsynchronous whirl

6 TC shaft motions virtual tool Major challenges: extreme operating conditions - Low Oil Viscosity, e.g. 0W30 or 0W20 - High Oil Temperature (up to 150°C) - Low HTHS (2.9); Low Oil Pressure (1 bar) - Increased Maximum Turbocharger Speed - Variable Geometry Turbo Technology & Assisted e-power start up - High Engine Vibration Level - More Stringent Noise Requirements Water Need predictive too to reduce costly engine test stand qualification

7 TC shaft motions virtual tool TC linear and nonlinear rotordynamic codes – GUI based – including engine induced excitations Realistic bearing models: thermohydrodynamic Novel methods to estimate imbalance distribution and shaft temperatures NL analysis for frequency jumps and noise reduction Measured ring speeds with fiber optic sensors Literature Review: San Andres and students Predictive tool for shaft motion benchmarked by test data 2004IMEchE J. Eng. Tribology 2005ASME J. Vibrations and Acoustics ASME DETC 2003/VIB ASME DETC 2003/VIB ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power ASME GT ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power ASME GT ASME J. Tribology IJTC ASME DETC ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power ASME GT IFToMM Korea TC testing: expensive and time consumingPredictive tool saves time and money Benchmarked against test data

8 TC shaft motions virtual toolMain Tasks – KEY OBJECTIVES 1. Measure shaft motion response in dedicated PV and CV turbocharger test rigs (cold & hot gas) 2. Development of software for prediction of (S) floating ring bearing static and dynamic forced response 3. Integration of FRB and SFRB tools into nonlinear rotordynamics code – VIRTUAL LABORATOY 4. Comparisons of test data to predictions: Validate predictive tool Test rigs XL BRG XLTRC 2 Tools

9 TC shaft motions virtual tool

10 KEY OBJECTIVE # 1 Test rigs for TC rotordynamic performance evaluation

11 TC shaft motions virtual tool Experiments to measure the rotordynamic response of a turbocharger supported on semi-floating ring bearings and fully floating ring bearings KEY OBJECTIVE # 1 Test Rigs Construct various test rigs, develop measurement methods, strategy to sensor selection and measurement locations, acquire data, processing tools, etc

12 TC shaft motions virtual tool TAMU TC test rig Infrared tachometer RAM BN sensors for shaft motion Fiber optics for ring motion detection 2002

13 TC shaft motions virtual tool TAMU TC test rig Infrared tachometer KAMAN sensors for shaft displacement at compressor side Accelerometers for casing motion 240 krpm max (4 KHz) 2004

14 TC shaft motions virtual tool TC gas stand test rig – HTT (France) 2008 KAMAN sensors for shaft displacement at compressor side connection to shakers 300 krpm max (5 KHz)

15 TC shaft motions virtual tool 3-axes accelerometers: engine isolated atop a large shaker table accelerometers TC engine stand test rig–HTT (Shanghai) 2008

16 TC shaft motions virtual tool Measure rotordynamic response of PV turbocharger Shaft speed krpm, Oil 5W-30, 150 C inlet temperature, feed pressure 1- 4 bar

17 TC shaft motions virtual tool waterfall compressor end shaft motions whirl frequency ratio and amplitudes (mm) of vibration. Oil supply pressure = 1 bar, T=150 C Dominance of sub synchronous motions at all speeds TLV TEST DATA

18 TC shaft motions virtual tool TC failure (cold air operation) krpm : Oil ISO VG 10 TAMU TEST DATA

19 TC shaft motions virtual tool TC failure (cold air operation) krpm : Oil ISO VG 10 Purpose of analysis is to reduce risk for this type of failure TAMU TEST DATA

20 TC shaft motions virtual tool (cold air operation) krpm : Oil ISO VG 10 TC failure TAMU TEST DATA

21 TC shaft motions virtual tool

22 KEY OBJECTIVE # 2 TC fluid film bearings Compressor side bearing oil supply holes Turbine side bearing oil supply holes Turbine side bearing ½ moon groove Oil supply Anti-rotation pin Turbine Comp Turbine bearing inner film Comp bearing inner film Shaft

23 TC shaft motions virtual tool Development of software for prediction of (semi) floating ring bearing (S-FRB) static and dynamic forced response KEY OBJECTIVE # 2 XLBRG Tool EXCEL & Fortran FEM code for prediction of FRBs and SFRBs forced response (static and dynamic ) Finite length bearing model with global thermal balance and shear thinning effects Interface to XLTRC 2 software for rotordynamics analysis

24 TC shaft motions virtual tool Models for fluid films - Balance of drag torques from outer and inner oil films - Thermal energy transport (heat conduction & convection) Ring Housing Shaft Inner oil film Outer oil film Y Outer film pressure, Po Inner film pressure, Pi Film thickness: X Reynolds Equations 2004 IMEchE J. Eng. Tribology

25 TC shaft motions virtual toolLumped Parameter Thermal Model shaft bearing Inner film Outer film Mechanical power by fluid shearing P ~ Torque x Rot Speed Inner film Temp Rise Outer film Temp Rise Oil energy increase ~ Heat flow Sp Heat x Mass flow x Temperature Difference Floating ring Energy convected to solids and conducted through shaft, ring and bearing 2004 IMEchE J. Eng. Tribology

26 TC shaft motions virtual tool Example: Turbine side bearing XL BRG ® INPUT Geometry (cold) – L,D,C Fluid Type (commercial oil) Material properties Operation (speed and load)

27 TC shaft motions virtual tool XL BRG ®: types of bearings shaft ring Oil inlet, P s, T S Half- moon groove Straight feed hole ring Oil inlet, P s, T S shaft Oil supply – outboard side Oil supply in bearing Types of oil supply Figures NOT to scale

28 TC shaft motions virtual tool (Semi & Fully) Floating Bearing Ring Actual geometry (length, diameter, clearance) of inner and outer films, holes size and distribution Supply conditions: temperature & pressure Lubricant viscosity varies with temperature and shear rate (commercial oil) Side hydrostatic load due to feed pressure Temperature of casing Temperature of rotor at turbine & compressor sides derived from semi-empirical model: temperature defect model XL BRG® ETHD fluid film bearing model predicts operating clearance and oil viscosity (inner and outer films) and eccentricities (static and dynamic) as a function of shaft & ring speeds and applied (static & dynamic) loads. XL BRG ® INPUT

29 TC shaft motions virtual tool Fluid Exit Temperature – Prediction vs. Test Data Turbocharger Speed (rpm) Lubricant Exit Temp (C) Measured Exit Temp Predicted Exit Temp Predicted Test data Oil Inlet Pressure = 2.06 bar Oil Inlet Temperature = 38°C Test data Predictions 5 o C5 o C ASME GT XL BRG ® Output

30 TC shaft motions virtual tool (S)FRB Predictions : Peak film temperatures Supply temperature Inner film Outer film Increase in power losses (with speed) leads to raise in inner film & ring temperatures. No effect of engine load ASME GT XL BRG ® Output

31 TC shaft motions virtual tool (S)FRB Predictions : Oil effective viscosity Supply viscosity: 8.4 cP Inner film outer film LUB: SAE 15W-40 Higher film temperatures determine lower lubricant viscosities. Operation parameters independent of engine load Lubricant type : SAE 15W - 40 ASME GT XL BRG ® Output

32 TC shaft motions virtual tool Thermal growth relative to nominal inner or outer cold radial clearance (S)FRB Predictions : Film clearances nominal clearance Inner film outer film Inner film clearance grows and outer film clearance decreases – RING grows more than SHAFT and less than CASING. Material parameters are important ASME GT XL BRG ® Output

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34 KEY OBJECTIVE # 3 TC rotordynamics linear and nonlinear

35 TC shaft motions virtual tool XLTRC² Rotordynamics Virtual Tool Beam Finite-Element Formulation Real Component-Mode Synthesis (CMS) model Multi-line Rotor/Housing Modeling Capability Linear and transient response nonlinear analyses Fully integrated with an extensive suite of support codes User-Friendly GUIs for rapid model development and report generation Integration of FRB and SFRB codes into nonlinear rotordynamics program KEY OBJECTIVE # 3 General EOMs

36 TC shaft motions virtual tool Component-Mode Synthesis (CMS) Timoshenko-beam, FE-formulation Calculates real modes Reduces model dimensionality by using a limited number of modes 1 m1m2m3m4 f1(t) f4(t) XLTRC² rotordynamics code

37 TC shaft motions virtual toolRotor structural FE models Typical FE rotor structure model Compressor thrust disk shaft turbine Typical TC rotor hardware

38 TC shaft motions virtual tool Rotor finite element model: 2 shaft model Rotor: 6Y gram SFRB: Y gram Static weight load distribution Compressor Side: Z Turbine Side: 5Z Compressor Turbine SFRB Thrust Collar Validate rotor model with measurements of free-fee modes (room Temp) Validate rotor model

39 TC shaft motions virtual tool Free-free natural frequency & shapes Measured and predicted free-free natural frequencies and mode shapes agree: rotor model validation measuredPredicted% diff KHz - First Second Validate rotor model

40 TC shaft motions virtual tool XLHYPADXLBRGXLTRC 2 FRB Geometry and Operating Conditions Linear ModelNon- Linear Model Synchronous response Eigenvalue analysis Synchronous response Subsynchronous motions Limit Cycle Orbits L1 L2 L3 Outer film Inner film L G1 L G2  HGHG A Virtual Laboratory Successful integration of FRB tools into rotordynamics program XLTRC² XLTRC² & XL BRG interfacing

41 TC shaft motions virtual toolNL predictions: typical responses Predictions of TC shaft motion response – displacement versus time: rotor acceleration & deceleration 18 krpm 240 krpm240 krpm 18 krpm

42 TC shaft motions virtual tool Important: Massive amounts of time domain data rarely show any value (do not add knowledge nor establish firm design rules not even rules of thumb) NL predictions: analyses in frequency domain Analysis stresses on frequency domain analysis to build waterfalls, find total motion and synchronous motions, filtering of major whirl frequencies to determine effect on rotor elastic motions, calculation of forces transmitted to casing and rotor.

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44 Test data vs. predictions KEY OBJECTIVE # 4 Validations If successful, a)Ready tool for PRODUCTION b)Demonstrate savings c)Install tool at all TC core engineering centers

45 TC shaft motions virtual tool Costly procedure to qualify TCs Four corners clearance limits IDminIDmax ODmin ODmax Co min RING ID casing Inner film ID OD OD shaft Outer film Co max Ci max Ci min Inner film Outer film Variations in manufactured RING dimensions

46 TC shaft motions virtual tool Past: NHS tests at 4 corners IDminIDmax ODmin ODmax RING ID casing Inner film ID OD OD shaft Outer film Inner film Outer film Costly TC qualification certification

47 TC shaft motions virtual tool Current: One (or no) NHS test IDminIDmax ODmin ODmax RING ID casing Inner film ID OD OD shaft Outer film Inner film Outer film Savings in TC qualification certification Determined from Virtual Tool

48 TC shaft motions virtual tool Validation: shaft motion for PV TC

49 TC shaft motions virtual tool TC rotor & bearing system 2 shaft model Example: RBS with Semi Floating Bearing shaft speed krpm Oil 5W-30, 100 C inlet temperature, feed pressure 2,4 bar C T u ASME DETC

50 TC shaft motions virtual tool ODmax-IDmax - compare ASME DETC Subsynchronous Components Synchronous Component Measured at compressor end Predicted at compressor end WATERFALLs of SHAFT MOTION

51 TC shaft motions virtual tool ODmax-IDmax - compare ASME DETC Total motion & 1X motion Whirl frequency

52 TC shaft motions virtual tool Nonlinear predictions reproduce test data – Linear eigenvalue analysis is limited in accuracy Cylindrical - Deformed Mode Shape Conical Mode Shape ODmin-IDmax - compare ASME DETC

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54 Validation: shaft motion for CV TC

55 TC shaft motions virtual tool shaft speeds krpm Oil 0W-30, 92 C inlet temperature, feed pressure 4 bar TC rotor & bearing system 3 shaft model

56 TC shaft motions virtual tool TC – Waterfalls: Test data and Nonlinear predictions 29.7 krpm krpm TESTS Test data shows broad bands in sub synchronous frequency regions. Whirl motions persist at all speeds. Predictions show sub synchronous frequencies to 184 krpm. More severe than test data at low shaft speeds. Prediction Validation CV TC

57 TC shaft motions virtual tool Imbalance response (linear and nonlinear) vs test data Nonlinear response predictions (1X filtered) compares best with test data at low shaft speeds TESTS Nonlinear response (1X filtered) 8% of physical limit

58 TC shaft motions virtual tool Good correlation with test data, in particular at mid shaft speed range ( kprm ). Test data & predictions show persistent sub sync motions Nonlinear response (orbit analysis) 60 % of physical limit Total Motion : test data and predictions TESTS

59 TC shaft motions virtual tool Validation: engine induced excitations ASME GT

60 TC shaft motions virtual tool –TC speed ranges from 48 krpm – 158 krpm –Engine speed ranges from 1,000 rpm – 3,600 rpm –25%, 50%, 100% of full engine load –Nominal oil feed pressure & temperature: 2 bar, 100°C Operating conditions from test data: Compressor Housing Air Inlet Engine Proximity Probes (X, Y) TC Engine Test Facility Stand ASME GT IC engine induced excitations

61 TC shaft motions virtual tool TC housing acceleration analysis Combined manifold & TC system natural frequencies Center Housing Comp. Housing m/s 2 100% engine load ~300 Hz ~570 Hz 1000 rpm 3600 rpm 2, 4, and 6 times engine (e) main frequency contribute significantly 1e order frequency does not appear ASME GT IC engine induced excitations

62 TC shaft motions virtual tool Housing accelerations into model ASME GT IC engine induced excitations

63 TC shaft motions virtual tool Housing accelerations induce broad range, low frequency whirl motions Test data shows broad frequency response at low frequencies (engine speeds) Waterfalls of shaft motion at compressor end 100% engine load 1000 rpm 3600 rpm ASME GT IC engine induced excitations

64 TC shaft motions virtual tool Good correlation with test data for all shaft speeds Total shaft motion at compressor end (amplitude) 100% engine load Test data NL pred. Amplitude pk-pk (-) Rotor speed (RPM) ASME GT IC engine induced excitations

65 TC shaft motions virtual tool Subsynchronous freq. vs. IC engine speed Subsynch. freqs. are multiples of IC engine frequency Higher engine order frequencies not predicted 100% engine load Test NL Subsynchronous frequency (Hz) Engine speed (RPM) TC manifold nat freq. ASME GT IC engine induced excitations

66 TC shaft motions virtual tool Validation: noise generation & frequency jump IFToMM 2010

67 TC shaft motions virtual tool Frequency jumps: test data Shaft accelerates Top speed ~180 krpm (3 kHz) Oil inlet temp= 30  C Oil inlet pressure = 4 bar Jump from 1 st to 2 nd whirl frequency increases noise center housing acceleration (test data) Objective: study bearing parameters and rotor characteristics affecting frequency jump Rotor Speed Frequency (Hz) Bifurcation speed ~105 krpm (1.75 kHz) Mode 2: Cylindrical 22 3131 2222 Synchronous: 1X  11 Mode 1: Conical 2121  bifurcation =2  1 +  2 Jump

68 TC shaft motions virtual tool 68 Frequency (Hz) krpm Horizontal direction NL predictions: frequency jumps Waterfalls of shaft motion (compressor end) Contour map Jump at 182 krpm (ramp down) Max speed, 240 krpm Jump at 165 krpm (ramp up) 1X ω1ω1 ω2ω2 IFToMM 2010

69 TC shaft motions virtual tool Rotor subsynchronous frequency (and amplitude) versus shaft speed (compressor end) Rotor accelerates Rotor Ωb= 165krpm (2.75kHz) 5ω1 ~ 4ω2 3ω1 + ω2~ Ωb ω2 = 815 Hz Ωb= 165krpm Cylindrical bending rotor filtered whirling mode C T ω1 = 654 Hz Ωb= 165krpm Conical rotor filtered whirling mode C T JUMP 165 krpm JUMP 182 krpm Ωb=182krpm (~3kHz) 5ω1 ~ 4ω2 2ω1 + 2ω2~ Ωb DOWN ω2 = 845 Hz Ωb= 182krpm C T Cylindrical bending rotor filtered whirling mode ω1 = 674 Hz Ωb= 182krpm C T Conical rotor filtered whirling mode 0.1 (-) NL predictions: frequency jumps IFToMM 2010

70 TC shaft motions virtual toolNL predictions: noise Predictions of TC shaft motion response – displacement versus time: rotor acceleration 18 krpm 240 krpm IFToMM 2010

71 TC shaft motions virtual tool

72 Closure 1. Tests SHOW dominance of SUB SYNCHRONOUS MOTIONS on rotordynamic response of PV TCs 2. TOOL for prediction of fully floating and semi- floating ring bearing (SFRB) static and dynamic forced response is ACCURATE 3. VIRTUAL TOOL : Seamless Integration of FRB and SFRB codes into nonlinear rotordynamics program TAMU & HTT XLBRG XLTRC2 Test vs. predictions Substantial savings in product development/prototype testing Major benefit to industry

73 TC shaft motions virtual tool TAMU-HTT VIRTUAL TOOL for Turbocharger NL Shaft Motion Predictions XL TRC 2® & XL BRG ® have a demonstrated 70% cycle time reduction in the development of new CV TCs. Since 2006, code aids to developing PV TCs with savings up to $150k/year in qualification test time ASME DETC Predicted shaft motionMeasured shaft motion

74 TC shaft motions virtual tool HTT Project Complete thermal analysis of FRBs and S-FRBs for TCs Prediction of thermal fields in entire TC system Quantification of power losses and prediction of bearing seizure & oil coking Analysis of frequency jump phenomena and multiple internal and combined resonances $ 350 k (2 years)

75 TC shaft motions virtual tool Oil-less turbochargers Driver: HT ceramic ICEs with improved reliability Advantages: + TH efficiency, HT limited by materials only, less contamination Disadvantages: + cost, more parts & balancing Unknown performance for large dynamic loads & road conditions Unknown thermal soaking Cheap solution sought: metal wire mesh bearings!

76 TC shaft motions virtual tool Other forces and issues Thrust bearings: Tools available Issues: thermal & coupling to lateral RD in PV TCs CV TC PV TC Aerodynamic forces: Tools available Issue: At + high speeds, turbine develops a destabilizing force Piston ring seal: Unknown forces. Issue: oil coking locks ring

77 TC shaft motions virtual tool Aerodynamic force in turbines Tip Clearance Excitation Force Review As rotor whirls, regions of low clearance improve efficiency of blades and generate a force (from torque) Low clearance, High blade efficiency Increased turbine force Large clearance, low blade efficiency Reduced turbine force rotation Whirl direction X X Y Thomas-Alford Force Model T: torque D: tip diameter H: blade height  efficiency parameter (empirical) =1-1.5

78 TC shaft motions virtual tool Acknowledgments Honeywell Turbocharging Technologies ( ) TAMU Turbomachinery Laboratory Turbomachinery Research Consortium (XLTRC 2® ) Learn more at Luis San Andres © 2011

79 TC shaft motions virtual tool References San Andrés, L., and Vistamehr, A., 2010, “Nonlinear Rotordynamics of Vehicle Turbochargers: Parameters Affecting Sub Harmonic Whirl frequencies and Their Jump,” Proc. of the 8th IFToMM International Conference on Rotordynamics, September, Seoul, Korea, Paper P-1115 Gjika, K., C. Groves, L. San Andrés, and LaRue, G., 2010, “Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of Turbocharger Rotor- Bearing Systems with Hydrodynamic Oil Film and Squeeze Film Damper in Series: Prediction and Experiment,” ASME Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics, Vol. 5 (October), p (1-8). San Andrés, L., Maruyama, A., Gjika, K., and Xia, S., 2010, “Turbocharger Nonlinear Response with Engine-Induced Excitations: Predictions and Test Data,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, Vol. 132(March), p (ASME Paper No. GT ) San Andrés, L., J.C. Rivadeneira, K. Gjika, C. Groves, and G. LaRue, 2007, “A Virtual Tool for Prediction of Turbocharger Nonlinear Dynamic Response: Validation Against Test Data,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 129(4), pp (ASME Paper GT ) San Andrés, L., J.C. Rivadeneira, K. Gjika, C. Groves, and G. LaRue, 2007, “Rotordynamics of Small Turbochargers Supported on Floating Ring Bearings – Highlights in Bearing Analysis and Experimental Validation,” ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 129, pp San Andrés, L., J.C. Rivadeneira, M. Chinta, K. Gjika, G. LaRue, 2007,”Nonlinear Rotordynamics of Automotive Turbochargers – Predictions and Comparisons to Test Data,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 129, pp (ASME Paper GT ) San Andrés, L., J.C. Rivadeneira, K. Gjika, M. Chinta, and G. LaRue, 2005, “Advances in Nonlinear Rotordynamics of Passenger Vehicle Turbochargers: a Virtual Laboratory Anchored to Test data,” Paper WTC , III World Tribology Conference, Washington D.C., September.

80 TC shaft motions virtual tool References San Andrés, L., J.C. Rivadeneira, K. Gjika, C. Groves, and G. LaRue, 2006, “Rotordynamics of Small Turbochargers Supported on Floating Ring Bearings: Highlights in Bearing Analysis and Experimental Validation,” Paper CELT06-76, Memorias del IX Congreso y Exposición Latinoamericana de Turbomaquinaria, Boca del Río Veracruz, Mexico, June 22-23, 2006, ISBN Holt, C., L. San Andrés, S. Sahay, P. Tang, G. LaRue, and K. Gjika, 2005, “Test Response and Nonlinear Analysis of a Turbocharger Supported on Floating Ring Bearings,” ASME Journal of Vibrations and Acoustics, 127, pp San Andrés, L. and J. Kerth, 2004, “Thermal Effects on the Performance of Floating Ring Bearings for Turbochargers”, Journal of Engineering Tribology, Special Issue on Thermal Effects on Fluid Film Lubrication, IMechE Proceedings, Part J, Vol. 218, 5, pp Holt, C., L. San Andrés, S. Sahay, P. Tang, G. LaRue, and K. Gjika, 2003, “Test Response of a Turbocharger Supported on Floating Ring Bearings – Part I: Assessment of Subsynchronous Motions,” ASME Paper DETC 2003/VIB-48418, Proceedings of the 19th Biennial Conference on Mechanical Vibration and Noise,” Chicago (IL), September Holt, C., L. San Andrés, S. Sahay, P. Tang, G. LaRue, and K. Gjika, 2003, “Test Response of a Turbocharger Supported on Floating Ring Bearings – Part II: Comparisons to Nonlinear Rotordynamic Predictions,” ASME Paper DETC 2003/VIB-48419, Proceedings of the 19th Biennial Conference on Mechanical Vibration and Noise,” Chicago (IL), September Naranjo, J., C. Holt, and L. San Andrés, 2001, “Dynamic Response of a Rotor Supported in a Floating Ring Bearing,. 1st International Conference in Rotordynamics of Machinery, ISCORMA1, Paper 2005, August 2001 (CD only). Over 80 proprietary monthly progress reports to sponsor (Honeywell Turbocharging Systems),

81 TC shaft motions virtual tool Learn more at Luis San Andres ©


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