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System dynamic modelling applied to wind turbine bearingsPresented in Warsaw at EWEC 2010 By Rut Heemskerk/ SKF Technology Centre Wind, Thierry Adane/SKF France & Reiner Wagner/SKF Germany
Presentation outline Product development process: =>Design for Six Sigma =>Advanced modelling tools Practical examples => SKF quiet running bearing for wind turbine generator => SKF NautilusTM bearing for wind turbine main shafts Learning from experience © SKF Group
The multi-party development process to improve performance and efficiencycenters SKF simulation toolbox Orpheus Manufacturing centers DfSS Application engineers Condition monitoring Customer Wind turbine application © SKF Group
Interconnection of DfSS and Six Sigma methodologies & toolsReduce variation € Defect Prevention DMAIC DfSS methodology e.g. HOQ DFMEA DOE ….. Cost to Achieve Quality Target Research Design Prototype Production Customer Problems are hard to foresee, easy to fix Problems are easy to see, costly to fix © SKF Group
Wind turbine generator system to componentsCascade approach to make the link between the WT system demands and the requirements on component design and specifications Wind turbine system Sub system generator Components & design rules Sub sub system bearing Internal geometry Grease Cage Rolling elements, Material … Optimization & solving loop SKF simulation toolbox Orpheus © SKF Group
Advanced tools to serve developmentMulti body tools like SKF Orpheus and SKF BEAST are simulating the bearing and its surrounding, including Detailed bearing models Flexible shafts Flexible housings Flexible planet stage gears Flexible bearing rings Real time loading input data Unique bearing model Considering contacts between all the components Full flexible model EHL model © SKF Group
SKF quiet running bearing for wind turbine generatorPractical example of SKF quiet running bearing for wind turbine generator © SKF Group
Noise mapping in wind turbine generatorFound in application field © SKF Group
Understanding of noise phenomenaLOOP application- testing-components Approach Analyse noise occurring in the application Simulate noise phenomena in MBS Reproduce noise phenomena on test rig Compare simulation models with test results Optimise bearing design for minimum noise & vibration Verify improvements by tests Supply prototype to generator Analyse noise of prototype bearing in generator Advantages Reliable model to optimize Less prototyping to target a solution Positive footprint on environment Wind Turbine Generator SKF Test Rig SKF BEAST © SKF Group
Detail on interaction modelling / DfSSBearing noise & vibration level in application Design parameters Operating conditions Parameters of influence Response surface under equations Control of variation Noise mapping Robust design against noise & vibration Bearing components design Noise level Application influence © SKF Group
Detail on noise modellingWTG operating conditions Amplitude of the impact power ball/cage (recorded over several rotations) conventional cage design optimised cage design for the application Back & forth motion © SKF Group
Comparison of test resultsSignificant reduction of the average vibration & noise level (10x) Spread of the vibration & noise reduced => Impact of cage design on noise & vibration generation identified, and optimised cage design developed and tested Relative vibration level Conv. cage Design var. A Design var. B Design var. C Final design optimised M cage © SKF Group
NautilusTM bearing for wind turbine main shaftPractical example NautilusTM bearing for wind turbine main shaft © SKF Group
NautilusTM bearing Application functionality and features NeedsAble to carry all rotor loads by one single unit Compact drive train with reduced weight and high torsional stiffness Designed to work under preload conditions Needs Relative large diameter Large pressure angle to be handled © SKF Group
Problems of large size bearings in operationBearing/housing deformation… and the effect on the cage (twisting, compression) EFFECTS Deflection of the roller-raceway contact is relative low (but stiffness is high) Deflection of the bearing rings in the application is large =>advanced calculation necessary!! =>„Standard“ cages are in a sliding contact with rollers and/or rings. Impact on friction CONSEQUENCES Deflection of the bearing rings generate: high sliding forces and friction misguiding of the rollers high operation temperature and wear, resulting in life reduction Deflection Friction Cage clearance consumed © SKF Group
Reducing high bearing friction by modellingSKF catalogue friction model: Gives quite precise results on catalogue bearings but does not consider the cage influence and is not applicable to non-standard bearings. Modelling of bearing friction torque with a 3D flexible model has identified: The source of highest friction when bearing operates as in application A robust method to develop a solution to overcome any inconvenience A bearing design with features going beyond initial expectations => An innovative segmented cage with low friction and negligible wear Full dynamic simulation model: Is needed to come to an accurate result on bearing friction moment with an optimized cage design Consistent usage of the process loops and the modelling leads to the following design: One-piece cage © SKF Group Segmented cage
Validation on test rig requires less prototypesThe model, including friction, has been verified on a SKF large size bearing test rig A reference case for friction prediction based on new calculation models has been established, Reduced prototyping requirements Measured lifetime is more than 5 times the calculated lifetime L10h Function of the bearing has been proven in real applications Stribeck curve Measurement vs. Calculation Speed in rpm Torque in % Calculated curve Measured points Rated speeds in application © SKF Group
Learning from experienceFor Large Size Bearing applications It is mandatory to do advanced flexible calculations Functionality of the bearing becomes more important than calculated L10 An overall approach is needed to optimise performance and reliability: Joint development, using DfSS tools and advanced system modelling Usage of high efficient bearing solutions is not only a demand from energy saving point of view, but even more from service life expectations © SKF Group
© SKF Group
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