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System dynamic modelling applied to wind turbine bearings Presented in Warsaw at EWEC 2010 By Rut Heemskerk/ SKF Technology Centre Wind, Thierry Adane/SKF.

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Presentation on theme: "System dynamic modelling applied to wind turbine bearings Presented in Warsaw at EWEC 2010 By Rut Heemskerk/ SKF Technology Centre Wind, Thierry Adane/SKF."— Presentation transcript:

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2 System dynamic modelling applied to wind turbine bearings Presented in Warsaw at EWEC 2010 By Rut Heemskerk/ SKF Technology Centre Wind, Thierry Adane/SKF France & Reiner Wagner/SKF Germany

3 © SKF Group Presentation outline  Product development process: =>Design for Six Sigma =>Advanced modelling tools  Practical examples => SKF quiet running bearing for wind turbine generator => SKF Nautilus TM bearing for wind turbine main shafts  Learning from experience

4 © SKF Group SKF simulation toolbox Orpheus The multi-party development process to improve performance and efficiency Development centers Manufacturing centers Wind turbine application Application engineers DfSS Condition monitoring Customer

5 © SKF Group DfSS methodology e.g. HOQ DFMEA DOE ….. € ResearchDesignPrototypeProductionCustomer Cost to Achieve Quality Target Defect Prevention Reduce variation Interconnection of DfSS and Six Sigma methodologies & tools Problems are hard to foresee, easy to fix Problems are easy to see, costly to fix DMAIC

6 © SKF Group Wind turbine generator system to components Sub system generator Sub sub system bearing Wind turbine system Components & design rules Internal geometry Grease Cage Rolling elements, Material … SKF simulation toolbox Orpheus Optimization & solving loop Cascade approach to make the link between the WT system demands and the requirements on component design and specifications

7 © SKF Group Advanced tools to serve development  Multi body tools like SKF Orpheus and SKF BEAST are simulating the bearing and its surrounding, including – Detailed bearing models – Flexible shafts – Flexible housings – Flexible planet stage gears – Flexible bearing rings  Real time loading input data  Unique bearing model – Considering contacts between all the components – Full flexible model – EHL model

8 © SKF Group Practical example of SKF quiet running bearing for wind turbine generator

9 © SKF Group Found in application field Noise mapping in wind turbine generator

10 © SKF Group SKF BEAST Understanding of noise phenomena Approach - Analyse noise occurring in the application - Simulate noise phenomena in MBS - Reproduce noise phenomena on test rig - Compare simulation models with test results - Optimise bearing design for minimum noise & vibration - Verify improvements by tests - Supply prototype to generator - Analyse noise of prototype bearing in generator Advantages - Reliable model to optimize - Less prototyping to target a solution - Positive footprint on environment LOOP application- testing-components Wind Turbine Generator SKF Test Rig

11 © SKF Group Detail on interaction modelling / DfSS Bearing components design Applicatio n influence Robust design against noise & vibration Bearing noise & vibration level in application Parameters of influence Response surface under equations Control of variation Noise mapping Design parameters Operating conditions Noise level

12 © SKF Group conventional cage design optimised cage design for the application Detail on noise modelling WTG operating conditions Amplitude of the impact power ball/cage (recorded over several rotations) Back & forth motion

13 © SKF Group Relative vibration level Conv. cage Design var. C Final design optimised M cage Significant reduction of the average vibration & noise level (10x) Spread of the vibration & noise reduced => Impact of cage design on noise & vibration generation identified, and optimised cage design developed and tested Comparison of test results Design var. A Design var. B

14 © SKF Group Practical example Nautilus TM bearing for wind turbine main shaft

15 © SKF Group Nautilus TM bearing Application functionality and features  Able to carry all rotor loads by one single unit  Compact drive train with reduced weight and high torsional stiffness  Designed to work under preload conditions Needs  Relative large diameter  Large pressure angle to be handled

16 © SKF Group Problems of large size bearings in operation EFFECTS  Deflection of the roller-raceway contact is relative low (but stiffness is high)  Deflection of the bearing rings in the application is large =>advanced calculation necessary!! =>„Standard“ cages are in a sliding contact with rollers and/or rings. CONSEQUENCES  Deflection of the bearing rings generate: - high sliding forces and friction - misguiding of the rollers - high operation temperature and wear, resulting in life reduction Deflection Friction Cage clearance consumed Bearing/housing deformation… and the effect on the cage (twisting, compression) Impact on friction

17 © SKF Group Reducing high bearing friction by modelling SKF catalogue friction model: Gives quite precise results on catalogue bearings but does not consider the cage influence and is not applicable to non-standard bearings. Consistent usage of the process loops and the modelling leads to the following design: Segmented cage One-piece cage Full dynamic simulation model: Is needed to come to an accurate result on bearing friction moment with an optimized cage design Modelling of bearing friction torque with a 3D flexible model has identified: The source of highest friction when bearing operates as in application A robust method to develop a solution to overcome any inconvenience A bearing design with features going beyond initial expectations => An innovative segmented cage with low friction and negligible wear

18 © SKF Group Validation on test rig requires less prototypes The model, including friction, has been verified on a SKF large size bearing test rig A reference case for friction prediction based on new calculation models has been established, Reduced prototyping requirements Measured lifetime is more than 5 times the calculated lifetime L10h Function of the bearing has been proven in real applications Stribeck curve Measurement vs. Calculation Speed in rpm Torque in % Calculated curve Measured points Rated speeds in application

19 © SKF Group Usage of high efficient bearing solutions is not only a demand from energy saving point of view, but even more from service life expectations Functionality of the bearing becomes more important than calculated L10 For Large Size Bearing applications It is mandatory to do advanced flexible calculations Learning from experience An overall approach is needed to optimise performance and reliability: Joint development, using DfSS tools and advanced system modelling

20 © SKF Group


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