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UNDERSTANDING CPU’S By: Matt Walbert, Alex Puleo, Anthony Minnocci, Chris Barrett.

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Presentation on theme: "UNDERSTANDING CPU’S By: Matt Walbert, Alex Puleo, Anthony Minnocci, Chris Barrett."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNDERSTANDING CPU’S By: Matt Walbert, Alex Puleo, Anthony Minnocci, Chris Barrett


3 DIFFERENCES IntelAMD Core Frequency Faster (more cycles per second) Lesser work cycle (more data per cycle) Socket Type 1366 Pins (LGA1366 Socket)938 Pins (AM3 Socket) Performance has multitasking with its hypertreading technology has graphical processing capability

4 POWER CONSUMPTION Intel i3 i5 i7 AMD Phenom II Series


6 FRONT SIDE BUS (FSB) carries data to northbridge connects CPU to rest of chipset Transfer Rates 32bit/64bit CPU FSB operating frequency number of FSB cycles

7 HYPER THREADING multiple tasks at once decreasing dependent instructions Intel Improvements improved reactions running simultaneous threads Drawbacks with earlier OS

8 MULTI-CORE PROCESSORS 2 or more processors working simultaneously on the same integrated circuit to execute instructions Integrated circuit – another name for computer chip System can perform more tasks, with better performance

9 DUAL CORE PROCESSORS 2 execution processor cores side-by-side on the same integrated circuit Each core has it’s own cache 2 complete cores to boost a systems multitasking capabilities Each core executing different instructions

10 applications-on-multi-core-servers/

11 TRIPLE-CORE PROCESSORS 3 processing cores on a single chip All simultaneously co-working for added performance and multi-tasking. HD entertainment, content creation, & gaming application Example: AMD Phenom x3

12 QUAD-CORE PROCESSORS 2 separate dual-core processors on a chip Cores 1 & 2 share a cache memory Cores 3 & 4 share a cache memory If cores 1 & 2 need to communicate with 3 & 4 it occurs via the front-side bus Intel and AMD both offer quad-core processors


14 TECHNOLOGY NEEDED? Operating Systems & applications running to support thread-level parallelism (TLP) Multi-threading capability Ability of an OS to execute different parts of a program called threads, simultaneously. Modern OS Typically XP or above Ability to run virus scanner, streaming radio, surfing the web all while not seeing a drop in performance

15 PROCESSOR SPEEDS Known as Clock-speed, it is the speed at which microprocessors execute instructions. Every CPU requires a fixed number of ‘clock-cycles’ to execute each instruction The faster the clock, the more instructions the CPU can execute per second. Superscalar: The ability of a processor to execute more than one instruction per clock cycle. All modern processors are superscalar


17 PROCESSOR SPEEDS… MHz : megahertz 1 MHz = 1 million clock cycles per second Ex: 500MHz = 500 million cycles per second to execute GHz : gigahertz 1 GHz = 1 billion clock cycles per second 3.3Ghz = 3.3Billion clock cycles per second to execute

18 OVER-CLOCKING A technique used by some to squeeze extra performance out of the advertised speed that the CPU was made for. Can be done by setting a jumper on the motherboard Typically voids the warranty of the processor Risks damaging and overheating the CPU

19 CUTTING-EDGE MODERN PROCESSORS Intel Core i7 extreme edition processor Hyper-threading technology across 6 cores Hyper-threading: technology developed by intel that enables multi-threaded software applications to execute threads in parallel on a single multi-core processor 15 MB of cache 3.3 GHz processing speed 1600 MHz front-side bus speed AMD Operton 6200 series Worlds first 16 core processor Features a coreTurbo technology that enables the processor to boost its speed to up to 500MHz - 1GHz depending on what is being asked of it

20 BASICS FOR CACHE Definition: Specialized form of memory in a computer It is designed to speed up the computer by prioritizing its contents for quick, easy access


22 MULTILEVEL CACHE Used for Multicore Processors Each processor has its own L1 cache This allows for each core to access its cache without interfering with other core’s caches Uses the L2 cache as a shared storage for all processors

23 L1 L1  Level 1 The smallest, but fastest cache Generally checked first It is generally on-chip for optimal speed and bandwidth L2 L2  Level 2 Larger, but slower cache Location Coupled closely with the CPU May be on-chip tho

24 TROUBLESHOOTING CACHE Problem Indications: Unexplained system crashes System failed to boot Slower than usual performance Reseat the cache module Check BIOS settings Check for overheating problems

25 32 BIT Maximum amount of memory is 4 Gbytes Can process 32 bits of information at a time 32 bit applications can run on 64 bit applications 64 BIT Can access 64 bits of information at a time Amount of memory  16.8 TB Applications can typically run better on a 64-bit systems

26 32 BIT VS. 64 BIT 64 bit has an advantage over 32 bit because of the amount of memory it can hold. As bits increase: Data can be accessed in larger chunks and more accurately The system can access larger number of locations in memory

27 COOLING METHODS Heat Sinks- transfer heat CPU and Case Fans- move air Over motherboard Liquid Cooling systems- used on RAM, processor, and chipsets Thermal Compound- Between processor and heat sink Staying Cool is key!


29 SOCKET TYPES Connection between processor and Motherboard Allow Processor alone to be replaced Large pin sockets: Zero-insertion (compression used), Land grid array (surface plate)

30 TROUBLESHOOTING PROCESSORS PC locks up after startup Beep is heard after startup and boot fails PC crashes on startup or when running applications

31 PC LOCKS UP Possibly heating/ cooling problem Check parts like heatsink, and fan Is thermal paste there? If processor is new: - clock jumpers on motherboard - BIOS settings not correct

32 POST BEEP CODE Is CPU getting power?, replace if so Motherboard second culprit Power surge

33 PC CRASHES ON STARTUP Run diagnostic software Viruses could be cause Motherboard or chipset could be cause

34 WORKS CITED liquid_cooling_system/ liquid_cooling_system/ guide.html guide.html


36 WORKS CITED cpu/2010/08/04 cpu/2010/08/04


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