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The First Microprocessor By: Mark Tocchet and João Tupinambá.

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Presentation on theme: "The First Microprocessor By: Mark Tocchet and João Tupinambá."— Presentation transcript:

1 The First Microprocessor By: Mark Tocchet and João Tupinambá

2 What is A Microprocessor? A Microprocessor is the CPU that performs basic operations in a microcomputer, consisting of an integrated circuit contained on a single chip. Video about the microprocessorthe microprocessor.

3 How A Microprocessor Works The way a chip works depends on how many transistors and gates it has. These transistors act as switches. A gate turns the transistor on and off allowing electrical currents to send, receive and process digital data (in binary) as instructions and information.

4 Designer: Federico Faggin He was the leader of the design/development project of the first microprocessor. Faggin did the detailed logic and circuit design, chip layout and program testing development without any previous chip design experience. He was the original developer of the Silicone Gate Technology.

5 The Intel 4004 The Intel 4004 was the first microprocessor, made in Silicone gate technology, which allowed a higher number of transistors and gates to be added, was one of the main reasons it was made. Making it much faster then before.

6 Construction of The Intel 4004 Many versions of the Intel 4004 processor were produced. The earliest versions were ceramic and used a Zebra pattern of white and gray on the back of the chips. The next generation of the chip was plain white ceramic.

7 Use of The Intel 4004 The first commercial and most famous use of this microprocessor was in the Busicom calculator 141-PF. Other uses were mainly for research purposes.

8 Microprocessor Timeline Maximum clock speed was 740 kHz Instruction execution time 1 or 2 instruction cycles (10.8 or 21.6 µs), to instructions per second Separate program and data storage. Contrary to Harvard architecture designs, however, which use separate buses, the 4004, with its need to keep pin count down, used a single multiplexed 4-bit bus for transferring:Harvard architecturebuses multiplexed – 12-bit addresses – 8-bit instructions – 4-bit data wordswords Instruction set contained 46 instructions (of which 41 were 8 bits wide and 5 were 16 bits wide) Instruction set Register set contained 16 registers of 4 bits each Internal subroutine stack 3 levels deep.subroutinestack

9 Microprocessor Timeline Maximum clock speed was 740 kHz Instruction execution time 1 or 2 instruction cycles (10.8 or 21.6 µs), to instructions per second Separate program and data storage. Contrary to Harvard architecture designs, however, which use separate buses, the 4004, with its need to keep pin count down, used a single multiplexed 4-bit bus for transferring:Harvard architecturebuses multiplexed – 12-bit addresses – 8-bit instructions – 4-bit data wordswords Instruction set contained 46 instructions (of which 41 were 8 bits wide and 5 were 16 bits wide) Instruction set Register set contained 16 registers of 4 bits each Internal subroutine stack 3 levels deep.subroutinestack

10 The Modern Differenece The Intel mm by 4mm chip. 10 micron tech transistors. Initially US $200. Can address 640 bytes. 500 kHz to 740 kHz. Typically instructions/sec bit instructions (originally only had 46 instructions). Intel® Core™ i7-3770T Processor 37.5mm x 37.5mm. Ball micro technology. Over 2,000,000,000 transistors. Initially US $294. Can address 8 Megabytes 9.29 GHz. Typically 68,719,476,736 instructions/sec. Latest 64 Bit instructions.

11 Selecting a Microprocessor Types There are two primary manufacturers of computer microprocessors. Intel and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). Both companies make both single-core and multi-core processors. Features Each processor has a clock speed which is measured in gigahertz (GHz). Also, a processor has a front side bus which connects it with the system's random access memory (RAM.) CPUs also typically have two or three levels of cache. Considerations The CPU you install must have the same socket size as the slot on the motherboard. Also, when you install a new processor, you may need to install a heat sink and fan. This is because faster processors produce more heat than slower ones. Size Check the speed of the front side bus (FSB) when purchasing your new computer or CPU. A front side bus of 800 MHz or greater is essential for fast processing speeds. The processor's cache is also important. Make sure it has at least 1 MB of last level cache if your computing needs are average. If you're an extreme gamer or if you run intensive graphics programs, get the processor with the largest cache. Benefits Getting a processor with a dual, triple or quad core can make a significant difference in the processing power of your computer. It's like having two, three or four separate processors installed on your computer at one time.

12 The End The Presentation Has Ended. You May Clap Now.


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