Presentation on theme: "Cognitive and Language Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Cognitive and Language Development C H A P T E R 2Cognitive and Language Development
2Learning GoalsDefine development and explain the main processes, periods, and issues in development as well as links between development and education.Discuss the development of the brain and compare the cognitive developmental theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.Identify the key features of language, biological and environmental influences on language, and the typical growth of a child’s language.
3Cognitive and Language Development An Overview ofChildDevelopmentDevelopment and EducationExploring What Development IsProcessesand PeriodsDevelopmentalIssues
4An Overview of Child Development Development: The pattern of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes that begins at conception and continues through the life span.
5Developmental Processes Biological processes and genetic inheritanceDevelopment of the brainGains in height and weightChanges in motor skillsPuberty’s hormonal changesCognitive processesChanges in the child’s thinkingIntelligenceLanguage acquisition
6Developmental Processes Socioemotional processesChanges in the child’s relationships with other peopleChanges in personality
11MyelinationMyelination increases the speed at which information travels through the nervous system.
12in the right hemisphere. Brain Lateralization…the specialization of functions in each hemisphere of the brain.VerbalProcessingIn most individuals,speech and grammarare localizedin the left hemisphere.NonverbalProcessingSpatial perception,visual recognition,and emotionare localizedin the right hemisphere.
13Brain and Children’s Education Role of early and later experiencesDramatic changes in synaptic connectionsPrefrontal cortex development into adolescenceCognitive control challenges in adolescenceBrain functioning along specific pathways and integrated
14Piaget’s Cognitive Processes Actions or mental representations that organize knowledgeIncorporating new information into existing schemasAdjusting existing schemas to fit new information and experiencesGrouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher-order systemA shift, a resolution of conflict to reach a balanceSchemasAssimilationAccommodationOrganizationEquilibration
15Piaget’s Four Stages Cognition unfolds in a sequence of four stages. Each stage is age-related and distinctive.Each stage is discontinuous from and more advanced than the previous.
17Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage Coordination of sensory experiences with motor actions.Object permanence involves the realization that objects continue to exist over time.
18Piaget’s Preoperational Stage Symbolic Function Substage Symbolic Thought: Ability to represent mentally an object that is not present.Limitations:Egocentrism: The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective.Animism: The belief that inanimate objects have “lifelike” qualities and are capable of action.
20Piaget’s Preoperational Stage Intuitive Thought Substage Intuitive Thought rather than logical thinkingCentration: Focuses on one characteristic to the exclusion of others.Lack of ConservationClassification: Ability to classify objects according to only one characteristic at a time.
22Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage Logical reasoning replaces intuitive reasoning, but only in concrete situations.Conservation The idea that some characteristics of an object stay the same even though the object might change in appearance.Classification Coordinate several characteristics rather than focus on a single property of an object.Seriation Order stimuli along some quantitative dimension.Transitivity Combine relations to understand certain conclusions.If A>B, and B>C, then A>C.
23Hierarchical Classification When shown afamily tree of fourgenerations, theconcrete operationalchild can classifythe membersvertically,horizontally,and obliquely.
24Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage Abstract reasoning: Think in abstract, idealistic, and logical ways.Hypothetical-deductive reasoning: Ability to develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems and systematically reach a conclusion.Adolescent egocentrism: Heightened self-consciousness and a sense of personal uniqueness.
25Piaget’s Theory Teaching Strategies PreoperationalThinkersManipulate groups of objectsReduce egocentrismDraw conclusions and explainwhyConcreteOperationsEncourage children to discoverconcepts and principlesAssign operational tasksPropose problems and encouragehypothesis formationSuggest alternative approaches toproblemsDevelop projects and investigationsFormalOperations
26Enter the DebateShould teachers allow preschool, kindergarten, and first-grade students to play for the bulk of their day?YESNODuring a slideshow, text may be written on the slides in the yes/no boxes, and then saved for later reference.
27Piaget’s Cognitive Constructivism Theory into Practice Jennifer, James, and several of their classmates are playing hide-and-go-seek during indoor recess one rainy day. Jennifer carefully conceals her entire body behind Mrs. Johnson’s long smock. In contrast, James hides only his upper body behind a jacket hanging on a hook. He giggles, sure that his classmates will never see him.A: Pre-operational. He is suffering from pre-operational egocentrism. He believes that if he cannot see his classmates, they cannot see him either.Q: Based on the information given above, at which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is James most likely operating? Explain.
28Piaget’s Cognitive Constructivism Theory into Practice Mr. Jackson has a sand table in his kindergarten classroom. He provides his students with many containers of different sizes and shapes to play with in the sand. He watches as his students carefully pour sand from one container to another. One little girl, Michelle, seems amazed when she pours sand back and forth between two containers. The sand always fills up one container and only half-fills the other, yet the containers are the same height.A: Conservation. She is learning that height and width of the container both contribute to how full the container becomes with the same amount of sand.Q: Based on the information given above, what skill is Michelle most likely developing? Explain.
29Piaget’s Cognitive Constructivism Theory into Practice Mr. Welby teaches high school English. He always asks his students to find the symbolism in the great works of literature he assigns. Some students do this with relative ease. For others it is a real struggle. Many are only able to parrot back what he has told them in class.A1: Formal operational. They can understand the symbolism in literature due to their ability to think abstractly.A2: Concrete operational. They are able to remember what Mr. Welby tells them, but cannot think abstractly enough to understand the symbolism.Q.1: At which of Piaget’s stages are those who understand the symbolism in literature likely operating?Q.2: At which of Piaget’s stages are those who cannot understand the symbolism in literature likely operating?
30Piaget’s Cognitive Constructivism Theory into Practice Marsha refuses to go to school one morning because she is having a “bad hair day” and is certain that everyone will stare at her all day. Her mother assures her that she looks just fine. However, Marsha races back to the bathroom to attempt to fix her “awful hair.”A: Marsha is suffering from adolescent egocentrism. She is very self-conscious and believes that others will be just as interested in, and hence as critical of, her hair as she is.Q: What would Elkind say is happening here?
31Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory Estimates of children’s competenceStagesTraining children to reason at a higher levelCulture and education
32Crack the Case The Case of the Book Report Drawing on Piaget’s theory, explain why Cindy understood the book.Based on Piaget’s theory, explain why Lucy did not understand the book.What could Mr. Johnson do to help Lucy understand?This case is on page 67 of the text.cont’d
33Crack the Case The Case of the Book Report How could Mr. Johnson have presented this assignment differently so that Lucy did not need to rush through a book?At which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is Cindy operating?At which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is Lucy operating?This case is on page 67 of the text.
34Vygotsky’s Theory Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding: Teacher adjusts the level of support as performance rises.Language and Thought:Develop independently of each other, then merge.Have external or social originsSelf-talk
35Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Tasks too difficult for child to master even with assistanceTasks child can master alone
36Vygotsky’s Social Constructivism Theory into Practice Peter is having difficulty with his math assignment. His teacher, Ms. Jacobs helps him work through the first problem step-by-step. Peter begins to understand the concepts and begins the other problems. Suzanne also struggles with the assignment. However, even when Ms. Jacobs works through the first problem with her, she still cannot grasp how to do the remaining problems. Meanwhile, Clarice has breezed through the assignment with no difficulty at all.A1: The assignment is within Peter’s ZPD. He can do it with Ms. Jacob’s assistance.A2: The assignment is beyond Suzanne’s ZPD. Even with assistance she cannot complete the assignment.Q.1: What would Vygotsky say about the assignment for Peter?Q.2: What would Vygotsky say about the assignment for Suzanne?
37Vygotsky’s Social Constructivism Theory into Practice Peter is having difficulty with his math assignment. His teacher, Ms. Jacobs helps him work through the first problem step-by-step. Peter begins to understand the concepts and begins the other problems. Suzanne also struggles with the assignment. However, even when Ms. Jacobs works through the first problem with her, she still cannot grasp how to do the remaining problems. Meanwhile, Clarice has breezed through the assignment with no difficulty at all.A3: The assignment is below Clarice’s ZPD. She can easily complete the assignment with no assistance because she has already mastered the concepts.Q4: Vygotsky’s term for this assistance is scaffolding.Q.3: What would Vygotsky say about the assignment for Clarice?Q.4: What would Vygotsky call the assistance Ms. Jacobs gives Peter and Suzanne? Explain.
38Reflection & Observation Identify an experience in which amore competent person helped youlearn something you were unable todo alone.How did this person scaffold yourlearning?This slide accompanies the video segment, Kindergarten Learning Centers, on the McGraw-Hill DVD Teaching Stories: A Video Collection for Educational Psychology.
39Cognitive and Language Development What IsLanguage?How LanguageDevelopsBiological andEnvironmentalInfluences
40Language is … Phonology Sound system of a language …a form of communication, spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols.Phonology Sound system of a languageMorphology Units of meaning involved in word formationSyntax Rules for combining words into phrases/sentencesSemantics Meaning of words and sentencesPragmatics Appropriate use of language in different contexts
41Biological and Environmental Influences Children are neither exclusivelybiological linguistsnorsocial architects of language.Interactionists emphasize the contribution of both.
42How Language Develops Infancy BabblingOne two words
43How Language Develops Early Childhood PhonologySensitive to sounds, rhymesMorphologyOvergeneralize rulesSyntaxComplex rules for ordering wordsSemantics6-year-old: 8,000 to 14,000-word vocabularyPragmaticsTalk in different ways to different people
44How Language Develops Middle & Late Childhood PhonologyAlphabetic principle: letter-sound correspondenceMorphologyAppropriate application of rulesSyntaxComplex grammar; metalinguistic awarenessSemantics12-year-old: 50,000-word vocabularyPragmaticsCulturally appropriate language use
45How Language Develops Adolescence Increased sophistication in use of wordsGreater understanding of metaphors, satire, and complex literary worksBetter writersDialect includes jargon and slang
46Supporting Vocabulary Development Through Technology ComputersRelate the new to the knownPromote active, in-depth processingEncourage readingAudio BooksEducational TelevisionPlease Note: The content of this slide is not in the text. If you do not wish to use it in a presentation, you may either delete or hide it.