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1 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1 C H A P T E R 2 Cognitive and Language Development

2 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Learning Goals 1. Define development and explain the main processes, periods, and issues in development as well as links between development and education. 2. Discuss the development of the brain and compare the cognitive developmental theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. 3. Identify the key features of language, biological and environmental influences on language, and the typical growth of a child’s language.

3 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Cognitive and Language Development An Overview of Child Development Processes and Periods Development and Education Developmental Issues Exploring What Development Is

4 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. An Overview of Child Development Development: The pattern of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes that begins at conception and continues through the life span.

5 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Developmental Processes Biological processes and genetic inheritance Development of the brain Gains in height and weight Changes in motor skills Puberty’s hormonal changes Cognitive processes Changes in the child’s thinking Intelligence Language acquisition

6 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Socioemotional processes Changes in the child’s relationships with other people Changes in personality Developmental Processes

7 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Developmental Issues Nature-Nurture Issue Continuity-Discontinuity Issue Early-Later Experience Issue

8 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Development and Education Developmentally appropriate teaching practices Splintered development

9 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Cognitive and Language Development Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory The Brain Vygotsky’s Theory

10 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Synaptic Density in the Human Brain

11 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Myelination Myelination increases the speed at which information travels through the nervous system.

12 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Brain Lateralization …the specialization of functions in each hemisphere of the brain. Verbal Processing In most individuals, speech and grammar are localized in the left hemisphere. Nonverbal Processing Spatial perception, visual recognition, and emotion are localized in the right hemisphere.

13 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Brain and Children’s Education Role of early and later experiences Dramatic changes in synaptic connections Prefrontal cortex development into adolescence Cognitive control challenges in adolescence Brain functioning along specific pathways and integrated

14 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Cognitive Processes Schemas Assimilation Accommodation Organization Equilibration Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge Incorporating new information into existing schemas Adjusting existing schemas to fit new information and experiences Grouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher-order system A shift, a resolution of conflict to reach a balance

15 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Cognition unfolds in a sequence of four stages.  Each stage is age- related and distinctive.  Each stage is discontinuous from and more advanced than the previous. Piaget’s Four Stages

16 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Four Stages

17 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Coordination of sensory experiences with motor actions. Object permanence involves the realization that objects continue to exist over time. Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage

18 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Preoperational Stage Symbolic Function Substage Symbolic Thought: Ability to represent mentally an object that is not present. Limitations: Egocentrism: The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective. Animism: The belief that inanimate objects have “lifelike” qualities and are capable of action.

19 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The Three Mountain Tasks

20 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Preoperational Stage Intuitive Thought Substage Intuitive Thought rather than logical thinking Centration: Focuses on one characteristic to the exclusion of others. Lack of Conservation Classification: Ability to classify objects according to only one characteristic at a time.

21 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Conservation of Liquid

22 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage Conservation The idea that some characteristics of an object stay the same even though the object might change in appearance. Classification Coordinate several characteristics rather than focus on a single property of an object. Seriation Order stimuli along some quantitative dimension. Transitivity Combine relations to understand certain conclusions. If A>B, and B>C, then A>C. Logical reasoning replaces intuitive reasoning, but only in concrete situations.

23 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Hierarchical Classification When shown a family tree of four generations, the concrete operational child can classify the members vertically, horizontally, and obliquely.

24 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage Abstract reasoning: Think in abstract, idealistic, and logical ways. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning: Ability to develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems and systematically reach a conclusion. Adolescent egocentrism: Heightened self- consciousness and a sense of personal uniqueness.

25 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Theory Teaching Strategies Preoperational Thinkers Concrete Operations Formal Operations  Manipulate groups of objects  Reduce egocentrism  Draw conclusions and explain why  Encourage children to discover concepts and principles  Assign operational tasks  Propose problems and encourage hypothesis formation  Suggest alternative approaches to problems  Develop projects and investigations

26 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Enter the Debate Should teachers allow preschool, kindergarten, and first-grade students to play for the bulk of their day? YESNO

27 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Jennifer, James, and several of their classmates are playing hide-and-go-seek during indoor recess one rainy day. Jennifer carefully conceals her entire body behind Mrs. Johnson’s long smock. In contrast, James hides only his upper body behind a jacket hanging on a hook. He giggles, sure that his classmates will never see him. Piaget’s Cognitive Constructivism Theory into Practice Q: Based on the information given above, at which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is James most likely operating? Explain.

28 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Mr. Jackson has a sand table in his kindergarten classroom. He provides his students with many containers of different sizes and shapes to play with in the sand. He watches as his students carefully pour sand from one container to another. One little girl, Michelle, seems amazed when she pours sand back and forth between two containers. The sand always fills up one container and only half-fills the other, yet the containers are the same height. Q: Based on the information given above, what skill is Michelle most likely developing? Explain. Piaget’s Cognitive Constructivism Theory into Practice

29 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Mr. Welby teaches high school English. He always asks his students to find the symbolism in the great works of literature he assigns. Some students do this with relative ease. For others it is a real struggle. Many are only able to parrot back what he has told them in class. Q.1: At which of Piaget’s stages are those who understand the symbolism in literature likely operating? Q.2: At which of Piaget’s stages are those who cannot understand the symbolism in literature likely operating? Piaget’s Cognitive Constructivism Theory into Practice

30 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Marsha refuses to go to school one morning because she is having a “bad hair day” and is certain that everyone will stare at her all day. Her mother assures her that she looks just fine. However, Marsha races back to the bathroom to attempt to fix her “awful hair.” Q: What would Elkind say is happening here? Piaget’s Cognitive Constructivism Theory into Practice

31 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory Estimates of children’s competence Stages Training children to reason at a higher level Culture and education

32 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Crack the Case The Case of the Book Report 1. Drawing on Piaget’s theory, explain why Cindy understood the book. 2. Based on Piaget’s theory, explain why Lucy did not understand the book. 3. What could Mr. Johnson do to help Lucy understand? cont’d

33 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4. How could Mr. Johnson have presented this assignment differently so that Lucy did not need to rush through a book? 5. At which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is Cindy operating? 6. At which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is Lucy operating? Crack the Case The Case of the Book Report

34 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding: Teacher adjusts the level of support as performance rises. Language and Thought: Develop independently of each other, then merge. Have external or social origins Self-talk Vygotsky’s Theory

35 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) ZPD Tasks too difficult for child to master even with assistance Tasks child can master alone

36 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Peter is having difficulty with his math assignment. His teacher, Ms. Jacobs helps him work through the first problem step-by- step. Peter begins to understand the concepts and begins the other problems. Suzanne also struggles with the assignment. However, even when Ms. Jacobs works through the first problem with her, she still cannot grasp how to do the remaining problems. Meanwhile, Clarice has breezed through the assignment with no difficulty at all. Vygotsky’s Social Constructivism Theory into Practice Q.1: What would Vygotsky say about the assignment for Peter? Q.2: What would Vygotsky say about the assignment for Suzanne?

37 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Peter is having difficulty with his math assignment. His teacher, Ms. Jacobs helps him work through the first problem step-by- step. Peter begins to understand the concepts and begins the other problems. Suzanne also struggles with the assignment. However, even when Ms. Jacobs works through the first problem with her, she still cannot grasp how to do the remaining problems. Meanwhile, Clarice has breezed through the assignment with no difficulty at all. Q.3: What would Vygotsky say about the assignment for Clarice? Q.4: What would Vygotsky call the assistance Ms. Jacobs gives Peter and Suzanne? Explain. Vygotsky’s Social Constructivism Theory into Practice

38 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Reflection & Observation Reflection: Identify an experience in which a more competent person helped you learn something you were unable to do alone. How did this person scaffold your learning?

39 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Cognitive and Language Development Language Development How Language Develops What Is Language? Biological and Environmental Influences

40 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Language is … Phonology Sound system of a language Morphology Units of meaning involved in word formation Syntax Rules for combining words into phrases/sentences Semantics Meaning of words and sentences Pragmatics Appropriate use of language in different contexts …a form of communication, spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols.

41 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Children are neither exclusively biological linguists nor social architects of language. Biological and Environmental Influences Interactionists emphasize the contribution of both.

42 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. How Language Develops Infancy Babbling One  two words

43 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. How Language Develops Early Childhood Phonology Sensitive to sounds, rhymes Morphology Overgeneralize rules Syntax Complex rules for ordering words Semantics 6-year-old: 8,000 to 14,000-word vocabulary Pragmatics Talk in different ways to different people

44 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. How Language Develops Middle & Late Childhood Phonology Alphabetic principle: letter-sound correspondence Morphology Appropriate application of rules Syntax Complex grammar; metalinguistic awareness Semantics 12-year-old: 50,000-word vocabulary Pragmatics Culturally appropriate language use

45 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. How Language Develops Adolescence Increased sophistication in use of words Greater understanding of metaphors, satire, and complex literary works Better writers Dialect includes jargon and slang

46 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Supporting Vocabulary Development Through Technology Computers  Relate the new to the known  Promote active, in-depth processing  Encourage reading Audio Books Educational Television


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