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The Evolution of Cyberspace

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Presentation on theme: "The Evolution of Cyberspace"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Evolution of Cyberspace
New Horizons Symposium 28 Feb 2012 Brig Gen Marty Whelan Director of Requirements AFSPC/A5 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

2 Today’s Warfighter Depends on Space and Cyberspace
MISSILE WARNING COMMUNICATIONS WEATHER NAVIGATION Space and Cyberspace are not a “like to have” for Joint and Coalition Commanders, they are a “must have.” Space and cyberspace capabilities are a pillar of the US military advantage over adversaries INTEL, SURVEILLANCE & RECONNAISSANCE SPACE ACCESS Space and Cyberspace capabilities enable the American way of warfare MISSILE DEFENSE SPACE SURVEILLANCE 2

3 Space & Cyber in Joint Operations
Irregular Warfare Enable distributed operations Orchestrate and synchronize multiple actions Enable persistent surveillance Regular Warfare Find, prosecute targets Distribute data, intent and link forces Enable C2 Assess results GPS SBIRS Computer Systems Networks DMSP WGS DSP Assured Access Global Assessment Monitor and revisit deep, denied areas Provide immediate warning Enable data fusion Crisis Management Provide national C2 under stress Enable search, rescue, mobility Allow “sharable” situational awareness This highlights Space and Cyberspace in Joint Operations. See the Battlefield with Clarity Communicate with Certainty Navigate with Accuracy Strike with Precision Operate with Assurance Acquire with Agility 3

4 Air Force Space Command What We Do
Provide Joint warfighting space capabilities Acquire space systems Provide assured access to space Assured capabilities across the spectrum Cyberspace Present full spectrum capabilities for the Joint warfighter in, through and from cyberspace Extend, operate and defend the AF portion of the DoD Network Establish requirements for future cyberspace systems/capabilities Assured capabilities across the spectrum Air Force Space Command has responsibility for both the Space and Cyberspace domains. Our requirements work is shaped around meeting the capability needs of these domains. 4

5 Space and Cyberspace: The Reality
Growing Demand Growing Threats Resource Constrained Environment Space and Cyberspace … The Reality (slide bullets from Gen Shelton’s 12 April 2011 speech to the National Space Symposium) Growing Demand: Today’s warfighter is dependent on space capabilities. And without space, military operations would be far less precise, less focused, less timely, less coordinated, less efficient, and much more costly.  It’s no longer just a “like to have” for Joint and Coalition Commanders; it’s a “must have”. Contested, Competitive and Congested Domains: Space and cyberspace are increasingly contested, competitive and congested domains. They are integrated with every mission, and they support all missions. We depend on space and cyberspace to achieve global reach, power and vigilance. Space and cyberspace have revolutionized warfare and provide a considerable advantage over our adversaries. But due to its nature, it can also be used against us. The rest of this presentation will explore the realities and capability needs of space and cyberspace and what is needed to achieve superiority in these domains. Resource Constrained Environment: We have a lot of smart people working on the problems, but clearly we’ve got to raise the level of our defenses in both the space and cyber domains. There’s a tremendous amount of work to do, not to mention the programmatics of it. The brief further describes what we’re doing in Air Force Space Command to address our current requirement needs. 5

6 SINE Operational View: The Future
Growing Demand Growing Threats Resource Constraind Environment 6

7 How do we reach the future
FOUO How do we reach the future Innovate: deliver resilient, cost-effective capabilities to the warfighter Evolve: requirements/acquisition processes Fund: must identify and fund the true needs AFSPC/CC Priorities Support the Joint Fight Control Acquisition Costs Operationalize/normalize cyberspace 7

8 Innovation: Competency, Connection, Champion
The innovator: industry, academia, or our own come up with the good ideas “Ideas” go through HQ AFSPC Innovation Forum AFSPC Entry point is Livelink Innovation Webpage Competency Technical experts vet possibilities Staff work with idea generator Champion Periodic Senior Forum established to review “ideas” Senior-level advocacy then assignment to Center/lab Follows Public Law/DoD 5000 series processes but with better input Game Changing Ideas will get here differently then operate the same 8 FOUO

9 Evolving Requirements & Acquisition Process
Warfighter Requirements DoD and AF are working to determine best method for cyber acquisitions… Need Industry to help us do smart acquisitions that keep up with current with current technologies. In the AF, we have made a number of efforts to balance the need to government oversight with rapid acquisitions. Industry manages to do cyber acquisitions smartly and quickly- we need to mimic that to the extent possible. In the AF, we have created a process for rapid cyber acquisitions- in the case where the warfighter- cyber’s leading edge- have required rapid changes. We are also tied to JCIDS- the DoD-mandated requirements process. Future cyber capabilities must follow DoD-mandated process… which means that many future cyber capabilities must enter JCIDS Acquisitions of new technology will be requirements based. Where the AF must stay up to date with technology for mission-essential reasons, acquisitions must be fast and efficient. Rely on industry for innovation SLIDE: CNF process/AF Cyber Pyramid, JCIDS, DoD process) … while staying up to date on current/future technologies. 9

10 Funding Impacts President’s direction to cut ~$487B over 10 years
Ongoing debt ceiling negotiations likely to drive further funding reductions across DoD AFSPC will continue to support the Core Function Master Plan strategy: Ensure continuity of critical capabilities in support of national and joint requirements Modernize or improve cyberspace and space capabilities using technically feasible and fiscally sound strategies Leverage partnerships or rely on commercial capabilities when beneficial to DoD Implementation in 2 phases Phase 1 – caps non-war–related discretionary funding for For 2012 & 2013 – these caps are divided into security spending and non-security spending For 2012 Cap is $684B $5B less than the $689B enacted in 2011 $36B less than the $720B requested for 2012 For – a single cap is directed for all discretionary spending Phase 2 – automatic trigger if Congress fails to Act on the recommendations of the Joint Committee Or the Joint Committee’s recommendations are less than $1.2T Under the Trigger – security spending is more narrowly defined Worse case scenario – base defense budget falls to $472B in 2013 $99B below projected FY 13 in the FY 12 Presidents’ Budget Total reduction to base defense budget over 10 years - $968B relative to the 2012 President’s Budget Highlights Initial caps on discretionary spending will likely result in the 2012 base defense budget falling to $525B Current 2011 base budget is $530B President’s request for 2012 is $553B TRIGGER - if the Joint Committee bill is not enacted and the trigger kicks in, 2013 base defense budget will be $472B vs FYDP projection of $571B $472 is close to the 2007 level of funding and that level would be maintained for 8 years IMPACT – could cause massive rework of 2013 POMs 10

11 Mission Area Innovation Opportunities
FOUO Mission Area Innovation Opportunities Unique challenges facing each mission area Rate of technological change Rapid development/deployment Cross mission collaboration/data fusion tools Shrinking budgets Key opportunities for industry partners NextGen technical solutions Transition from “tools” to “capabilities” Capabilities that are interoperable 11

12 Challenges and Opportunities
Cyber Infrastructure Challenges and Opportunities Challenges Standardization to a single AFNet Capable and sustainable enterprise solutions Rapid acquisition processes Continued DOD Budget cuts, efficiency demands Contracting process to purchase IT equipment Industry Opportunities Effective Asset Management Innovative, interoperable enterprise solutions Unified Communications Lessons learned Efficiency gains Data Center Consolidation “Green” data center implementations Rapid network monitoring and management across compliant and non-compliant systems 12

13 Challenges and Opportunities
Cyber Operations Challenges and Opportunities Challenges Assured information protection Legacy capabilities oriented toward detection vice prevention Timely awareness/characterization of potential threats DoD acquisition processes, while improved, are still slow to need Increase operational cost to attacker while lowering the benefit Industry Opportunities Develop hardened/defensible/reliable AF networks leveraging current technologies, architectures and resources Provide proactive capabilities to actively prevent cyber threats Fuse cyber data to create actionable information and assure AF missions Leverage existing/future Cyber Acquisitions process to deliver best value 13

14 Challenges and Opportunities
Cyber Warfare Challenges and Opportunities Challenges Funding Growing mission area vs. shrinking budgets (i.e., Budget Control Act) Qualification Training Demand increasing faster than throughput Intel support to cyber program development Normalize cyber intelligence requirements and prioritize support Industry Opportunities Cyberspace domain continues to change at “light speed” Must be able to keep up with new technology Transition of “tools” to “capabilities” 14

15 Challenges and Opportunities
MILSATCOM Challenges and Opportunities Challenges Addressing the entire SATCOM enterprise for 2025 & beyond Developing a strategy to better leverage military, commercial, civil, and international solutions, including business models Situational awareness and protection of space assets Industry Opportunities Create innovative solutions to future SATCOM requirements Create operator-to-satellite open/service oriented ground system architectures Consolidate functions and capabilities across multiple systems Synchronize mission threads Challenges The entire MILSATCOM enterprise is large with many interested parties involved. It is essential that we obtain a community wide consensus on the future of MILSATCOM. Developing commercial partners is a new undertaking for MILSATCOM. New strategies and models need to be explored so that we understand all the requirements, both practical and legal into military/commercial ventures in MILSATCOM. Situational awareness of the space environment and space assets will continue to be a challenge for all space operators and users not just the military. Industry Opportunities Industry can continue to provide innovative solutions to meet both short term gaps but also to address future requirements. Begin to look at a ground system architecture that is not focused on a single system but one that can integrate with multiple systems across a services or even services. Create systems that can address multiple functions or capabilities across multiple systems. Need to address the continual schedule delays between ground, user, and space systems. 15

16 Challenges and Opportunities
MILSATCOM Terminals Challenges and Opportunities Challenges Developing XDR-capable terminals for AEHF Timely integration of delivered terminals into platforms Synchronizing terminal deliveries and platform integration with new on-orbit SATCOM capabilities Industry Opportunities Ka-band capable terminals possibly for additional airborne platforms (e.g. AMC) to take advantage of WGS on-orbit assets New terminal opportunities resulting from a future Analysis of Alternatives study to follow the JSCL Initial Capabilities Document   16

17 Missile Warning/Defense Challenges and Opportunities
Resiliency with lower cost & manpower Control cost, schedule, performance Support Netcentric Operations Integrate Cyber Capabilities into MW/MD portfolio Standardize MW/SSA reporting Industry Opportunities: Invest in data compression and large data transmission Develop, register, and expose services for gov’t subscription/reuse Maximize Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) 17

18 SSA/C2-Challenges and Opportunities
Fiscally constrained environment for several years Maintain, sustain and exploit existing capabilities Leverage other non-traditional sensor capabilities Exploit mission partner and coalition capabilities JFCC-Space requires timely actionable information Integration of Space and Cyberspace touch points Industry Opportunities Leverage/Exploit existing sensors for enhanced sensitivity/capacity Develop methods & means to maintain chain of custody Improve environmental forecasting & effects capabilities Ground-based optical sensors for deep space search & discovery Next generation space-based optical system for timely re-visit Dynamic ability to process extensive amounts of new data Establish commercial & coalition partnerships Cross mission collaboration/data fusion tools 18

19 Challenges and Opportunities
Space Launch Challenges and Opportunities Challenges Aging infrastructure; difficult to operate and maintain Increasing costs Utilizing launch manifest more efficiently Sustaining space launch industrial base Orbital debris mitigation compliance Industry Opportunities New entrants Reduced cost Enhanced resiliency Challenges Aging infrastructure; difficult to operate and maintain Increasing costs Utilizing launch manifest more efficiently Treat launch slots as “National assets” -- Revamped CLSRB process; slot concept; Sustaining space launch industrial base - “Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)”: Balancing “right” order quantities to address needs while addressing the stabilization of production to control cost Orbital debris mitigation compliance Redesign of booster tanks/propellant tanks Add additional solids Reclassify missions to larger boosters All of the above have associated cost increases that need to be addressed Industry Opportunities New entrants Reduced cost Enhanced resiliency 19

20 Challenges and Opportunities
Launch Ranges Challenges and Opportunities Challenges Aging infrastructure and fiscal constraints present operations and sustainment challenges; instrument reliability opposed to excessive redundancy Variety of non-standard launch systems driven by diverse customer needs Real-time data receive, processing and display drive costs for robust systems with a “no-fail” design Multiple independent contracts for operations at each range, plus overarching sustainment – drives contract overhead costs for all contracts Industry Opportunities Propose range safety strategy that does not require significant investment on the range or from launch customers; solutions that require significant capital investment on the range or launch customers are a non-starter Propose efficiencies in day-to-day operations and sustainment of range infrastructure (current and future as mentioned above) using a single consolidated contract Gen Shelton’s Speech Air Force's space-launch infrastructure requires modernization, said Gen. William Shelton, head of Air Force Space Command. The facilities at Cape Canaveral AFS, Fla., and Vandenberg AFB, Calif., are already a half-century old, plus the two locations aren't standardized, said Shelton in his keynote address at the 50th American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics aerospace sciences meeting in Nashville, Tenn. "It's a problem akin to the late 19th century when every railroad had their proprietary rail sizes and rail spacings," he said. "Once they standardized the gauges, all of them realized more efficient operations, lower costs, and greater profits." Shelton said his vision for the space ranges is that "they become planned communities instead of the hodgepodge of one-off capabilities and specialty facilities they are now." He noted during his Monday speech that the Air Force is working "toward an intra-range standardization solution" that would combine space-range operations, maintenance, and sustainment into a single integrated contract. 20

21 Challenges and Opportunities
SATOPS/AFSCN Challenges and Opportunities Challenges Non-materiel (non-developmental) solutions for consolidating common SATOPS tasks across multiple satellite operating units Operational concepts for on-demand, protected, agile SATOPS Net-centric AFSCN operating concepts – present users and operators with a web-like interface Industry Opportunities Concept development – how to achieve capability with non-materiel (non-developmental) approaches; enterprise data standards 21

22 Excellence: Global and Beyond
Summary Space and cyberspace capabilities – vital to national security and the Joint fight Single MAJCOM – enhance synergies between space and cyberspace Domain challenges – competitive, congested, contested Keys to success – innovate, evolve, fund We are honored by the Joint and coalition partnerships that enable us to meet our adversaries advances in both space and cyberspace Defending the U.S., its allies and friends is a continuous mission that requires the utmost planning and execution AFSPC will continue to deliver combat power to the Joint Fight Operating in an increasingly contested domains is only one of the challenges AFSPC must be mindful of as we accomplish our missions Our professionals, their technical expertise and operational prowess are the core of our space and cyberspace team AFSPC will remain the most capable military space and cyberspace force. Thank you Excellence: Global and Beyond 22

23 QUESTIONS? The Leading source of emerging and integrated space and cyberspace capabilities

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