3 Some quotes to consider… "A good leader is not necessarily the most popular person in their business, but the best ones are liked because they are respected for their clarity and vision" - Alan Sugar"Good leadership is about the company's success, not your own" - Anne Mulcahy (CeO Xerox)"Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality" - Warren Bennis Founding Chairman of The Leadership Institute at the University of Southern California.
4 Syllabus aims… the meaning of leadership the range of leadership stylesassessing internal and external factors influencing leadership stylethe role of leadership in managing changeassessing the importance of leadership.
5 The meaning of leadership A relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of other peopleSource: Mullins (The Nature of Leadership)
6 Can you name me some leaders Can you name me some leaders? (They don’t have to be from the world of business!)Confucius Genghis KhanEdmund Hillaryfirst to summit Mount Everest during the 1953 British expeditionLeninKofi Annan Head of UN
10 In reality, both are closely linked LeadersManagersInspire peopleBuild relationshipsTake risksHave followersEnact the planUse their authorityManage risksHave subordinatesIn reality, both are closely linked
11 You will need to go back to these links later for your task!
13 Used in the armed forces! Leadership theoryAuthoritarianAuthoritarian leaders provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done.There is also a clear division between the leader and the followers.Authoritarian leaders make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the group. Anna WintourEditor of VogueUsed in the armed forces!Mrs Gordon's notes13
14 Paternalistic Leader decides what is best for employees Leadership theoryPaternalisticLeader decides what is best for employeesLinks with Mayo – addressing employee needsAkin to a parent/child relationshipStill little delegationA softer form of authoritarian leadershipJohn CadburyMrs Gordon's notes14
15 Leadership theoryDemocraticDemocratic leaders offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members.Employees have greater involvement in decision-makingEmphasis on delegation and consultationPresident John F. Kennedy – more charismatic than democratic?One of the best examples of a democratic leader is also a political figure - Dwight D. EisenhowerAs a military leader Eisenhower was faced with the difficult task of getting the Alliance forces to agree on a common strategy. Eisenhower worked hard to make sure everyone worked together to come to a common understanding. This was one of his greatest achievements. It was here that the democratic leadership style and collaborative efforts of Eisenhower shone through and with a victory of the Alliance forces to help back up the correctness of the approach.President Dwight D. EisenhowerMrs Gordon's notes15
16 Leadership theoryDemocraticDemocratic leaders offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members.Employees have greater involvement in decision-makingEmphasis on delegation and consultationMrs Gordon's notes16
17 Leadership theoryLaissez-faireIs a leader who leaves the details to experts and doesn't interfere with subordinates.Leader has little input into day-to-day decision-makingConscious decision to delegate powerManagers / employees have freedom to do what they think is bestEffective when staff are ready and willing to take on responsibilityNot the same as abdicationMrs Gordon's notes17
19 Tannenbaum and Schmidt Four Main Styles of LeadershipTellsManager identifies problems, makes decision and announces to subordinates; expects implementationSellsManager still makes decision, but attempts to overcome resistance through discussion & persuasionConsultsManager identifies problem and presents it to the group. Listens to advice and suggestions before making a decisionJoinsManager defines the problem and passes on the solving & decision-making to the group (which manager is part of)
20 What factors would influence the leadership style???? Choose one of these leaders and list all the factors that would influence their leadership style
21 Larry Page and Sergey Brin Irene RosenfeldCeO of KraftFrancisco D'SouzaYoungest CeO at 37Larry Page and Sergey BrinCo-Founders, GoogleAndrea JungCeO of Avon
22 Internal Factors affecting leadership style Personal value systemsManager’s experienceConfidence in subordinatesFeelings of securityNature of the business problemsType of organisation (size, structure)Effectiveness of teams and groupsSkills and experience of subordinatesPressure (time, costs)
23 External Factors affecting leadership style The political and legal environmentThe economic environmentThe social environmentThe technological environmentChanging nature of the industry
24 Your taskUse the internet to research the benefits and limitations of each type of leadership style…Make your own ‘revision notes’ to use…See last slide for links to useful resources.
25 Group Mind Maps… How can a good leader help a business be successful? Leadership theoryGroup Mind Maps…How can a good leader help a business be successful?How can a bad leader cause a business to be less competitive?What other factors, other than leadership, help a business be successful? Consider at least 2 internal & 2 external factors.Use three pieces of A3 paper….Get each group to share their ideas – pull together a clear answer to each section – get students to make notes on the ‘final’ answer. Stress that this is a typical ‘essay’ answer….Share your ideas on these areasMrs Gordon's notes
26 Extension task….Use the internet to research more of the work of up to two leadership theorists covered in this unit, which could include:Kurt LewinBlake and Mouton’s Country Club Management (1964)Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Continuum Theory (1973)Douglas McGregor – Theory X and Theory Y ManagersFred Fiedler – Contingency ModelJohn Adair – Action Centred Leadership
27 Your HWK task….Your task is to research a current chief executive of any business.This could be of one of the UK’s FTSE 100 firms.Write a short report (at least 500 words) giving examples of leadership style and justifying your findings. Include an image of the CeOHow do these leadership theories apply to your chosen leader?Include your word count at the end of your work!