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Presentation on theme: "SPRINKLER PROTECTION IN ATRIUM SPACES, IS DELUGE AN OPTION?"— Presentation transcript:

Ing. J.C. (Johan) Hoogeweg DGMR, Netherlands Fire Sprinkler International 2014

2 Introduction: Objective: To give an insight in the daily practice of a fire engineer regarding High atrium spaces and sprinklers. Fire Sprinkler International 2014

3 The problem? (1) Architect: Users: Empty atrium / no fire load
Larger and higher (>40 m) Users: no limits in usage: Seating area’s (Car) exhibition Service desks Shops Libraries Stages Fire Sprinkler International 2014

4 The problem? (2) Dutch building code:
Fire compartiments (FC) max m2, 60 minutes rating between FC’s: Atrium is > m2 Atrium is open with the surrounding floors (no walls/glass) Atrium wall is glass (60 minutes rating around €/m2) In the past a atrium without fire compartments was acceptable if: Slow growing fire (max 25 m2 after 30 minutes) Smoke and heat venting However this is no longer generally accepted by the fire brigade Option: Sprinkler to control the fire Fire Sprinkler International 2014

5 Sprinkler code limits Code Max hight remark EN 12845 12 meters
Discussion if this is acceptable (will K80 sprinklers control a fire?) FM global 30 meters Wet systems only Limited ceiling slope Lot of fire damage (fire and smoke) due to late activation Test reports are ‘secret’. NFPA 13 15,3 meters Discussion if this is acceptable Fire Sprinkler International 2014

6 Deluge Concept (1) Concept: 100% based on existing sprinkler
technology Apply water over the total area of the protected space Density the same as sprinkler code (depends on hazard) System activated by fire detection system Sidewall sprinklers or sprinklers under the ceiling Fire Sprinkler International 2014

7 Will it work (example case)?
Aspect Real fire test Deluge concept Hazard EN 12845: OH1 Density 5 mm/min Design Area 72 m2 Total atrium (>72 m2) Ceiling height 8 meters 31 meters Activation Sprinkler head Fire detection system First sprinkler / system activated 18:34 [min:sec]* < 5 minutes Fire size Large Smaller than sprinkler Fire controle YES * source: VdS office OH1 fire test Fire Sprinkler International 2014

8 Activation ASD Activation by fire detection system
reliable detection (false detection  water!) Always ‘double knock’ system Smoke detection and flame detection (all directions) Fire size: 0.25 m2 Foam Flame detection Fire Sprinkler International 2014

9 Safegards It’s a complex systems, accidental activation of the system is possible! To prevent unwanted activation: ‘Double knock’ fire detection Delay in activation of the system (manual override) Sample: Max. delay time [4:00] Detection time flame detection Detection time smoke detection [3:00] Activation time sprinkler (calculated/fire test) [7:00] time Fire Sprinkler International 2014

10 Sprinkler heads Sprinkler heads: (EC) sidewall sprinklers
(EC) pendent/upright sprinklers Listed/approved for risk (VdS/LPC/UL/CE) Glass bulb removed, after pressure test Fire Sprinkler International 2014

11 Design Area (1) Design area: Location 1: total atrium
Location 2: normal design area sprinkler (e.g. EN OH 72 m2) Location 3: Normal sprinklers + Deluge protection? Fire Sprinkler International 2014

12 Design Area - Zoned systems
Limit water demand en water Damage Fire in zone A: A+B activated Fire in zone B: B+C+D activated Advanced flame detection required (if possible) Not possible in square or round atriums More valves and piping required Fire Sprinkler International 2014

13 Water management In case of activation, water damage could be a issue:
Water in elevator shafts/server rooms/storage  € € € € € € € Keep in mind: Water drains Barriers (2/3 cm is enough) Fire Sprinkler International 2014

14 Deluge cases Building Police Academy, Apeldoorn Curved ceiling
Outside FM 3-26 / FM 2-0 scope Hirsch building, store 8 meter atrium Architect: no sprinklers under glass roof Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Protection of restaurant seating area Existing roof structure Eneco HQ Rotterdam Atrium height: 25 m Pre FM 3-26 K360 Hilton Schiphol Atrium height: 42m

15 Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (1)
Fire Sprinkler International 2014

16 Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (2)
Ceiling height: 42 meters 676 m2 (26*26 meters) ‘no limits’ parking cars exhibitions stages Seating area’s Sprinkler code: NFPA 13 Ordinary hazard group 2 Fire Sprinkler International 2014

17 Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (3)
Sprinkler design: Sidewall sprinklers only Design area sprinkler: 4,9 * 7,3 m No coverage in the centre of the atrium Fire Sprinkler International 2014

18 Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (4)
Solution: Sprinkler column

19 Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (5)
Design area atrium: 3 columns 24 sidewall sprinklers Fire Sprinkler International 2014

20 Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (6)
Design area -atrium: 24 sidewall sprinklers 291 l/min/sprinkler Water demand: 24 sprinklers * 291 l/min * 60 minutes *1.2 (hydraulic imbalance) = 503 m3 Fire Sprinkler International 2014

21 Case 2: Eneco World, Rotterdam
Position of flame detection Ceiling level: m Horeca area Event area Sprinkler heads: Sidewall sprinklers In the koffee corner Position of sprinkler heads Fire Sprinkler International 2014

22 Conclusion Is deluge THE solution: NO Will deluge control a fire: same a sprinkler (maybe better) Water damage: YES Fire and smoke damage: Small Is deluge A solution: in some cases? Fire Sprinkler International 2014

23 Questions, discussions?
Fire Sprinkler International 2014


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