Presentation on theme: "Materials. M1 LESSON M1: What are materials? This is a big question for a big subject. Materials are the basic components that make up pretty much everything."— Presentation transcript:
M1 LESSON M1: What are materials? This is a big question for a big subject. Materials are the basic components that make up pretty much everything around us.
Materials M1 Steel: Steel is an alloy (a mixture containing one or more metals) composed of iron with a carbon content of 0.2%- 2.1%. Concrete: Concrete is a stone-like construction material generally made of sand, gravel, water, chemicals and cement. Glass: Glass is a solid material with no specific shape. It is brittle and usually transparent. Brick: Ceramic (non- metallic) material used for construction and held together with mortar. Used primarily in building construction and pavements Semiconductors: Semiconductors are materials that have electrical conductivity in-between conductors and insulators. Wood: Wood is the raw material for producing lumber (used for construction) as well as other processed products such as paper (see below), particle board and plywood. Paper: Paper is a thin material made from pressing fibers together that is generally used for writing, printing and packaging. Textiles: Flexible materials created by weaving yarn or thread together. Textiles can be natural, man-made or a mixture of both.
Materials M1 Can you name everything in the room that is made with plastic? What are the primary raw materials used to make plastic?
Materials M2 LESSON M2: Where does it come from?
Materials M2 The Production/Consumption Cycle: 1. Extraction 2. Processing 3. Manufacturing/Assembly 4. Distribution 5. Use 6. Disposal
Materials M2 Extraction: This is the process by which we obtain raw materials from nature LoggingDrilling Cultivation NEED FARM PHOTO Mining
Materials M2 Processing: At this stage, the raw materials are refined or transformed into a processed material. Processing of raw materials into goods and products requires tremendous amounts of: Water – cools turbines and machinery, chemical transformations Electricity – powers equipment Heat – transforms materials
Materials M2 Manufacturing: At this stage materials are moved through manufacturing and fabrication processes.
Materials M2 Distribution: Materials are transported at each stage of the life cycle.
Materials M2 Use: The material remains in this stage until it is no longer wanted or becomes usable.
Materials M2 Disposal: A product is disposed of when it is no longer of use or wanted. The majority of building Construction materials and consumer products end up in landfills.
Materials M3 Did you know that: Many consumer products are used for about 10 minutes or less before they are thrown away. If you find this hard to believe, consider all of the packaging, boxes, plastic bottles, and wrappers we throw out almost as soon as we get them. In the United States each person produces roughly 4.3 pounds of garbage each day!
Materials M3 Landfills: Also known as garbage dumps, landfills are places where the waste is placed in a giant hole, then covered with soil and plastic. Currently, the U.S. has 3,091 active landfills and over 10,000 old municipal landfills
Materials M3 Incinerators: Incineration is the disposal of waste by burning it. This method converts waste into ash, heat and gas, and is considered an alternative to landfills because it reduces the volume of solid waste. Waste Transfer Stations: Transfer stations are facilities where waste is unloaded from garbage collection trucks and held temporarily until it is loaded on trucks, trains or other long distance vehicles that will deliver the waste to a landfill or other waste treatment facility. Recycling: Recycling refers to the collection and processing of waste materials for reuse and is a part of modern waste management.
Materials M3 Great Pacific Garbage Patch Plastic makes up 90% of the garbage in the world’s oceans. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch stretches across hundreds of miles in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean between California and Japan.
Materials M4 LESSON M4: Milestones in Modern Garbage
Materials M4 Waste has been around almost as long as people have
Materials M4 Waste Streams: With the thousands of materials and products in use today, people create many different types of waste. –Waste management is the process of disposing of materials once they are discarded. It involves collection, transport, processing, recycling and/or disposal of waste materials. Construction Waste: This is the debris generated at construction or demolition sites.
Materials M4 Hazardous Waste: This type of waste is harmful to humans and/or the environment. It must be handled and disposed of in a different way from other types of wastes.
Materials M4 Electronic Waste: Also known as e-waste, this category consists of discarded, obsolete or broken electronics such as computers, cell phones and televisions. E-waste contains heavy metals and other toxics substances such as lead, cadmium, mercury, PVC and a host of other materials that can enter the environment when these items are discarded.
Materials M4 Industrial Waste: Industrial waste is the non-hazardous waste produced by industrial activity
Materials M4 Municipal Solid Waste (MSW): Most MSW comes from homes, schools, and businesses. Packaging makes up over 25% of our municipal solid waste
Materials M5 LESSON M5: Where do we fit in? We have examined how materials are produced and how they are discarded. What part do you play?
Materials M5 Consumerism & Advertising “We’re reminded a hundred times a day to buy things, but we’re not reminded to take care of them, repair them, reuse them or give them away.” - Michael Jacobson, Center for the Study of Commercialism
Materials M5 Advertising Strategies Bandwagon Testimonials Avant Garde Bribery Plain Folks Snob Appeal Transfer
Materials M6 What types of waste can you find at school?
Materials M7 LESSON M7: Reducing, Reusing and Recycling
Materials M7 What materials can be recycled in the U.S.? Concrete Batteries Organic Wastes (composting) Clothing Electronics
Materials M7 What materials can be recycled in the U.S. (con’t) Paper Plastic Metals Glass
Materials M7 Reuse & Reduce The most effective way to reduce waste is to avoid creating it in the first place How can you reduce the amount of waste you create? How can you reuse something you might have thrown away?
Materials M7 Cradle to Cradle Biodegradable Modular and Easily Reassembled Design for Reuse Recycled Content
Materials M8 LESSON M8: Introduction to Sustainable Materials
Materials M8 Properties of Sustainable Materials Local Longevity/ Durability Non-toxic or low-toxic materials Low-impact manufacturing process Renewable Recyclable
Materials M8 Examples of Sustainable Materials Bamboo Cork Composite boards made of natural materials Linoleum Countertops from recycled materials Concrete and drywall from recycled materials Low VOC or Natural Paints
Materials M8 Biomimicry: This technique uses the systems, processes and elements of nature as inspiration to solve problems in design, engineering, etc.
Materials M8 Recycled Materials: Many new sustainable materials contain a percentage of recycled content. Additionally, when buildings are taken apart, many of the materials and components such as brick, doors, glass and concrete can be reused.
Materials M8 Alternative Energy Harnessing clean and renewable sources of energy such as sun, wind and water reduce carbon emissions and make a building more sustainable. Buildings may be situated and designed so that they take advantage of the sun’s natural heat and light. Passive Solar
Materials M8 Green Walls and Roofs: Green walls are plants grown along the exterior walls of a building to block light in the summer for cooling and allow sunlight to enter in the winter for heating. Green roofs are plants grown on the roof to create greenery, insulate the building, capture rainwater and clean the air.
Materials M10 LESSON M10: Global Garbage: Rethinking what we use and how we use it.
Materials M10 Waste Worldwide Many places in the world, especially developing countries, are facing the consequences of our waste. Many of our heavily packaged products are exported to countries that do not have the same type of infrastructure for managing waste, there are no trash cans on every street corner and no weekly garbage pickup or any sanitary landfills. Europe and the United States actually export garbage to other countries. Countries like India, Nigeria and China receive money from US companies to accept our empty plastic bottles, scrap paper and e-waste.
Materials M10 The Problem of E-Waste Some e-waste recyclers in the United States do not actually recycle the electronics but instead make more money by trading it to developing countries, where there is often weak legislation on health, safety and the environment.