Presentation on theme: "Cross-cultural teambuilding and Diversity management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cross-cultural teambuilding and Diversity management
2 Definition I groupwork = teamwork A team is a group which works on a clear defined task. A team can manage a whole project or only part of it. Teams exist for a special task-orientated reason and their existence is limited to the fulfilment of the task.
3 Definition II there are two kinds of groupwork to distinguish: 1. formal group (which was founded on organisational composition)2. informal group(which is formed through personal wishesand sympathy)
4 Types of Teams 1. Traditional work groups (Natural work groups) 2. Impromptu short-term teams (Swat teams)3. Special purpose teams (project teams)4. Cross-functional teams5. Self-managed teams (“direct team”)
5 Stages of Group Development 1. Forming-getting to know each other and testing2. Storming-group structure begins to emerge3. Norming developing cohesion4. Performing working structure
6 Social Group Structure I 1. Status structure- a relative and valued position of a member inside the group - mediator in a communication processM5M1M2M3M4M2M4M1M1M4M5M2M3M3M5CircleChainY
7 Social Group Structure II 2. Role structure - gives information about thebehaviour and the expectations of the behaviour3. Leadership - formed informally lead back on behavioural attributes
8 Group Composition IGroup Size small team (3-5 members) big team (8-12 members)the number of team members should depend on the tasks which have to be solved
9 Group Composition IIhomogeneity & heterogeneity - homogeneity is needed to develop group cohesion - heterogeneity is necessary to produce the potential for change in a groupRedl´s law of optimum distance: “homogeneous enough to ensure stability and heterogeneous enough to ensure vitality” (?????)
10 Group Composition IIIDescriptive attributes: - Age - Gender - Race and ethnicity - Social classBehavioural attributes: - these refer to the way in which individuals behave, their personality, attitudes and life styles (talkative vs. quiet, dominant vs. submissive)
11 Definition of Diversity “diversity can best be described in terms of differences from the accepted mainstream population” Myers, S.:Team Building For Diverse Work Groups, p.8Mark M. Deresky, „Managing in a Diverse Workforce“, MBA paper, West Florida Universuty (Spring 1994)National originLanguageGenderWorkforce DiversityReligionCultureFamily situationRaceAgePhysical abilitySexual orientationMarital statusSocio-economic status
12 Aims of Group Composition the goal is to create a workplace in which individuals are not limited by traditional barriers, stereotypes and restrictionsCohesion through trust, openness and diversity
13 Cultural diversity......can have positive as well as negative impacts on a team.+ a well managed diverse team augments the potential productivity because many different ideas and perspectives concerning a special situation play a role- cultural diversity increases the complexity of the whole process and can therefore lead to difficulties in integrating and evaluating the various perspectives
14 Disadvantages I Differences in language Differences in communication Differences in management stylesDifferences in norms, behaviourstereotyping/ prejudices personality conflicts, mistrust
15 Disadvantages IIgreater complexity problems in reaching agreements, the decision-making process is influenced in a negative waylack of trust, communication inaccuracies stress, tension decreased effectiveness
16 Advantages sharing technology sharing skills and talents sharing experiencesopportunity for cross-cultural understandinglimited “groupthink”varied backgrounds exposure to different viewpoints and alternatives more and better ideas higher productivity
18 When does diversity become most valuable? When the need for agreement remains low and relatively high need for creativity is required, that means when an organisation wants to launch a new product, create new ideas or develop a new marketing plan from a new perspective, diversity becomes most valuable.Diversity can lead to better customer relationship because different market issues are handled from different points of view; customers are seen more individually and can therefore be treated more appropriately.
19 Team effectivenessfrom: N.Adler: International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, p. 137
20 Team effectiveness“When well managed, diversity becomes an asset and productive resource for the team. When ignored, diversity causes process problems that diminish the team’s productivity. Since diversity is more frequently ignored than well managed, culturally diverse teams often perform below expectations and below organisational norms.”N.Adler: International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, p. 138
22 Synergy“The combined effect of two or more things, processes, etc that exceeds the sum of their individual effects: the synergy achieved by merging two companies“[Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary]
23 Synergy“The synergy approach assumes that we are not all the same – that the various groups within society differ and that each maintains its cultural distinctness. Appreciating a pluralistic, rather than a homogeneous, society underlies the synergy approach. Whereas the most commonly held assumption is that similarities among people are most important, cultural synergy assumes that similarities and differences share equal importance.”N.Adler: International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, p. 107 Cultural diversity should be seen and treated as a resource!
24 Synergy David Kearns, chairman of Xerox: “We have to manage diversity right now and much more so in the future. American business will not be able to survive if we do not have a large, diverse workforce, because those are the demographics.”Deresky, H.:Managing Human Resources Around the World, p. 446If a company wants to develop new markets and merge with other companies, it has to be able to deal with differences and diversity!
25 Managing cultural diversity Diversity Management is an instrument which describes all measures that lead to the recognition of differences and which makes sure that those differences are getting highly valued.Those measures should point out that diversity can have a positive impact on the company.
26 Managing cultural diversity Task-related selectionRecognition of differencesA vision or superordinate goalEqual powerMutual respectFeedback
27 Managing cultural diversity Task-related selectionTo maximise team effectiveness, members should be selected to homogeneous in ability levels and heterogeneous in attitudes
28 Managing cultural diversity Recognition of differencesTeams cannot begin to communicate without first recognising and then understanding and respecting cross-cultural differences
29 Managing cultural diversity A vision or superordinate goalMembers of diverse teams generally have more trouble agreeing on their purpose and task than do members of homogeneous teams
30 Managing cultural diversity Equal PowerTeam leaders should distribute power according to each member‘s ability, not according to relative cultural superiority
31 Managing cultural diversity Mutual RespectMutual respect can be improved by selecting members of equal ability and by making prior accomplishments and task-related skills known to all members
32 Managing cultural diversity FeedbackManagers should give teams positive feedback - both as individuals and as a team - early in the team‘s life togetherPositive external feedback (given by a manager who is not in the team) generally helps the team to viewing itself as a team
33 Managing cultural diversity The MBI Model of Managing Cultural Diversity for Personal and Team EffectivenessMapUnder-stand the differ-encesBridgeCommu-nicate across the differ-encesInte-grateManage the differ-encesValue and utilise the differ-ences
34 Managing cultural diversity COF - The Cultural OrientationFrameworkMapUnder-stand the differ-ences1) Relation to nature2) Relationships among people3) Mode of human activity4) Belief about basic human nature5) Orientation to time6) Use of space
35 Managing cultural diversity 3 important skills to effective communication in a cross-cultural settingBridgeCommu-nicate across the differ-ences1) Prepare2) Decenter3) Recenter
36 Managing cultural diversity 3 main integration skillsInte-grateManage the differ-ences1) Building participation2) Resolving conflicts3) Building on ideas