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1 Work in the 21 st Century Chapter 13 Teams in Organizations Ryan McVay/Getty Images.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Work in the 21 st Century Chapter 13 Teams in Organizations Ryan McVay/Getty Images."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Work in the 21 st Century Chapter 13 Teams in Organizations Ryan McVay/Getty Images

2 2 Module 13.1: Types of Teams Reasons for increased use of teams: –Work can be performed concurrently rather than sequentially –Innovation & creativity promoted –Enable quick, effective development/delivery of products & services –Organizations learn & retain learning more effectively

3 3 Groups & Teams: Definitions Groups include members who may work together or may just share some resources Teams include members whose tasks are interdependent; Work towards a common goal & share responsibility for outcomes Groups & Teams have too much in common for any grand distinctions

4 4 Types of Teams Quality circles –Typically involve 6-12 employees who meet regularly to identify problems/generate ideas –Positive outcomes in short term but gains not sustained over time (honeymoon effect) –They remain popular in Japan, but less so in United States John A. Rizzo/Getty Images

5 5 Types of Teams (cont’d) Project teams –Created to solve particular problem –Disbanded after problem solved or project completed –Raise some organizational challenges – multiple reporting relationships.

6 6 Types of Teams (cont’d) Production teams –Consist of front-line employees who produce a tangible output –Autonomous work group: Type of production team with control over a variety of functions Research findings unclear, more research is necessary John A. Rizzo/Getty Images

7 7 Virtual Teams Composed of widely dispersed members working together toward a common goal; linked through technology Pose several advantages to organizations Trust is a critical concern; Increase via: –Virtual-collaboration, virtual-socialization, and virtual-communication behaviors

8 8 A Specialized Team: Airline Cockpit Crew Benefit from an organizational context that provides: – Challenging objectives – Prior training and education – A consistent information system

9 9 A Specialized Team: Airline Cockpit Crew Such crews have very real teamwork requirements, particulary in an emergency A spectacular example was the Hudson River landing of US Airways flight 1549 in January 2009 Notably, the pilot, Captain Chesley “Sully” Sullenberger, had a master’s degree in I-O psychology and was professionally involved in crew resource management research and training.

10 10 Module 13.2: A Model of Team Effectiveness Input-Process-Output Model –Enables understanding of how teams perform & how to maximize performance Figure 13.1 The Input-Process-Output Model of Team Effectiveness Source: Adapted from Gladstein (1984)

11 11 Team Inputs Organizational context –Provide necessary resources Team task –Task to be performed Team composition –Attributes of team members –Shared mental models Team diversity –Demographic & psychological diversity

12 Dimensions of the Stevens and Campion (1999) Teamwork Test 12

13 13 Team Outputs Team performance –Often reflected in objective measures Team innovation Team member well-being

14 Shared Mental Model Organized way for team members to think about the way a team will work. Helps team members understand and predict the behaviors of their team members. 14

15 Team Diversity Demographic diversity –Differences in observable attributes or demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity Psychological diversity –Differences in underlying attributes such as skills, abilities, personality characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and values; may also include functional, occupational, and educational backgrounds 15

16 16 Team Processes Norms –Informal rules of a team Communication & coordination –Social loafing Cohesion –Degree of desire to remain in team Decision making –Groupthink

17 17 Module 13.3: Special Issues in Teams Team appraisal & feedback –Should provide team with information needed to identify team problems & further develop team capabilities –Extent to which team behaviors & outputs can be measured must be considered –ProMES

18 18 Team-role theory (Belbin, 1993) –Effective teams contain a combination of individuals capable of working in 9 team roles –Used predominantly in Europe & Australia Plant Resource investigator Coordinator Shaper Monitor evaluator Team-Worker Implementer Completer Specialist

19 Table 13.2: Belbin’s 9 Team Roles 19

20 20 Team Development Changes occur in teams as they develop over time 5 stages of development 1. Orientation (forming) 2. Conflict (storming) 3. Structure (norming) 4. Work (performing) 5. Dissolution (adjourning) PhotoLink/Getty Images

21 Table 13.3: 5 Stages of Group Development 21

22 22 Team Training Involves coordinating performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal 4 Strategies –Cross-training –Team coordination training –Team leader training –Guided Team Self-Correction Training

23 23 Cultural Issues in Teams Applying Hofstede’s cultural dimensions –Implications for teams Individualism vs. collectivism Long-term vs. short-term orientation Effect of cultural & national backgrounds of team members

24 24 Teams and Culture Team horizon –Cultural dimension that affects whether managers & employees focus on short or long-term goals Teams tend to be well-received in collectivistic cultures

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