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Unified Model A Unified Model for L1 and L2 Brian MacWhinney HKIEd, Carnegie Mellon.

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Presentation on theme: "Unified Model A Unified Model for L1 and L2 Brian MacWhinney HKIEd, Carnegie Mellon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unified Model A Unified Model for L1 and L2 Brian MacWhinney HKIEd, Carnegie Mellon

2 Unified Model Thanks to... Elizabeth BatesMichèle KailKerry Kilborn Csaba PléhKlaus KöpckeMaryellen MacDonald Julia EvansNatasha TokowiczOvid Tzeng Ping LiIgor FarkasArturo Hernandez Yoshinori SasakiRichard WongAntonella Devescovi Reinhold KlieglJeff SokolovBeverly Wulfeck Vera KempeJanet McDonaldHasan Taman Elena PizzutoStan SmithDan Slobin Roman TarabanPatricia BrooksZhou Jing Yuki YoshimuraMelita KovacevicJoe Stemberger Chris JonesJared LeinbachChristophe Parisse Yvan RoseKees De BotPhil Pavlik Nora PressonYanping DongAnat Prior Yanhui Zhang Sue-mei Wu NIMH (25 years)NSF (10 years)MacArthur (3 years)

3 Unified Model Economic Assumptions Competence in English is crucial for success in the global economy. But most of the population of the world does not speak English as L1. So English is L2. Other L2s have parallel roles. It is not enough to restrict L2 competence to the elite, since work is becoming increasingly based on language skills. Different social and economic configurations will require differing levels of L2 competence.

4 Unified Model Position 1: Early Immersion There is a Critical Period for language learning. There is a learning/acquisition dichotomy. Late bilinguals can never achieve full L2 competence. Therefore, we must start immersion L2 programs at the pre-primary level. And spend billions of dollars in exposure, but not really teaching.

5 Unified Model Position 2: Focus on community There is a Critical Period and a learning/acquisition dichotomy. However, immersion will not work and can conflict with other goals in early childhood education. Pre-college education should be in the native language. Full bilingualism is only possible if the community becomes bilingual.

6 Unified Model Position 3: Focus on quality There is no critical period for second language learning, although there are important age effects. Critical period effects are due to entrenchment and competition. What is important is not the timing of learning, but the quality of exposure. We may still need billions of dollars, but in teaching, not just exposure. Languages can be learnt and taught. There is no real learning/acquisition dichotomy.

7 Unified Model The Positions Position 1 -- UG: Chomsky, Lenneberg, Krashen, Long, Hurford, Pinker, Newport, Meisel Position 2 -- Sociolinguistics: Fishman, Swain, Ervin-Tripp, Gumperz Position 3 -- Emergentism: Bates, Ellis, Bialystok, Snow, MacWhinney, Ringbom

8 Unified Model 7 Pillars of UG 1. Critical Period -- today’s focus 2. Grammar Gene 3. Speech is Special 4. Modularity 5. Poverty of the Stimulus 6. Sudden Evolution of Language 7. Centrality of Recursion

9 Unified Model 7 pillars of emergentism 1. L1-L2 competition and entrenchment 2. Gradual evolution 3. Modules are made not born 4. Polygenic emergent genome 5. Speech relies on mammalian abilities 6. Learning on input 7. Emergence of recursion

10 Unified Model Which will stand?

11 Unified Model Entrenchment vs. Critical Periods Critical Periods are linked to infancy. Observed drop is not precipitous. Lateralization is not linked to CP. Language is not a unitary ability. Golf, ballet are also age-related. No mechanism has been discovered. UG-related syntactic patterns are not strongly fossilized - Birdsong

12 Unified Model 12 Critical Periods Bee dance, cricket song Does the ability need a trigger? When does it start and end?

13 Unified Model 13 L1 CP ≠ L2 CP L’enfant Sauvage by François Truffaut Truffaut as Dr. Jean Itard

14 Unified Model 14 How many CPs? 6 mos -- deaf children 2 -- Early bilingual impacts 5 -- Output phonology Flege 8 -- Korean adoptees, literacy, orthography 13 -- Hemispherectomies, synaptic pruning 15 -- Shift in learning, growth of strategies 20 -- Beginning of decline 40 -- Social difficulties

15 Unified Model 15 Where is the critical drop? Newport & Johnson Hakuta actual

16 Unified Model 16 A real CP - Hubel & Weisel

17 Unified Model 17 What we know Critical periods are basic to embryology. Critical periods for binocular vision in cats; periods for exposure to song in birds; precocial bird attachment; Animals have many instincts; but is language an instinct? Kuhl and Werker: brain locks in on early sounds Bosch, Juszyck: Auditory system builds early contrasts Rosenzweig rats in rich environments get bigger brains.

18 Unified Model 18 A bridge too far No evidence for early brain effects Mozart for babies Linda Acredolo and Baby Signs Mobiles, language while you sleep Suzuki method There is nothing wrong with early L2 learning, but no evidence that it is indispensable Early bilingualism ≠ Early L2 learning

19 Unified Model CP for holding pens?

20 Unified Model Chopsticks?

21 Unified Model Multiple language abilities Bulgarian grad student who wrote at the top of the class, but had a noticeable accent. Hungarian diplomat with perfect English, but nothing to say. Japanese grad student with perfect interaction and comprehension, but impossible definite articles and slow test-taking. Fossilization for specific German nouns vs. fossilization for some past tenses.

22 Unified Model How can we decide? Neurological evidence for a Critical Period Immigrant studies ★ Proof of success in native acquisition for age of arrival well past the Critical Period. ★ Proof of failure after some early age of arrival. L2 Classroom studies ★ Big correlational analyses (questionable method) ★ Randomized clinical trials (if we could get funding) ★ Microgenetic method studies (my current preference)  experiments -- can we teach r/l?  online methods  TalkBank video methods

23 Unified Model Mechanisms of UG Genes Modules Principles, Parameters, Rules

24 Unified Model Mechanisms of Emergence Entrainment, physical and social Adaptation, selection Competition, strength, reinforcement Maps, topology, short connections Self-organized criticality Resonance Homeostasis, homeorhesis, feedback

25 Unified Model Why the shift to emergentism? Without advanced methods, emergentist cognitive science was not possible We didn’t have CHILDES, TalkBank Audio, video analysis was primitive We couldn’t simulate - PDP, SOM, ART We couldn’t image the brain - ERP, fMRI We couldn’t study learning in vivo - PSLC. With these advances, emergentism is becoming the default stance.

26 Unified Model Unified Competition Model competition maps chunking buffers codes resonance mental models transfer

27 Unified Model 27 L1 and L2 The learning goals are the same. The available mental processes are the same. However, the specific challenges are different.

28 Unified Model 28 L1 Learning Challenges Segmenting out words Organizing phonological gestures Bootstrapping syntax Conversational sequencing

29 Unified Model 29 L2 Challenges Maximizing positive transfer Avoiding negative transfer Overcoming age effects ★ Using resonance to overcome entrenchment ★ Proceduralizing declarative structures - Ullman/Paradis

30 Unified Model Component Theories 1. Competition interactive activation, Bayes 2. MapsSOM, entrenchment 3. Transfer A relation between maps 4. Chunkingchunking theory, fluency 5. Buffersprocessing load, CAPS 6. Resonancememory theory, Pimsleur, coding 7. Mental model perspective, embodiment 8. Codessociolinguistics, identification

31 Unified Model 1. Cue Competition Whodunit? ★ The tiger pushes the bear. ★ The bear the tiger pushes. ★ Pushes the tiger the bear. ★ The dogs the eraser push. ★ The dogs the eraser pushes. ★ The cat push the dogs. ★ Il gatto spingono i cani.

32 Unified Model Cues vary across languages English:The pig loves the farmer SV > VO > Agreement German:Das Schwein liebt den Bauer. ★ Den Bauer liebt das Schwein Case > Agreement > Animacy>Word Order Spanish:El cerdo quiere al campesino. ★ Al campesino le quiere el cerdo. "Case" > Agreement > Clitic > Animacy > Word Order

33 Unified Model Cues DeviceExample Word Order the dog chases the cat Function words der - die - das Affixes was tak-en Clitics nous, le, ba Constructions the more -- the merrier

34 Unified Model Central Claim Cue validity predicts cue strength (Bayesian statistics) ★ [p(function)|form] - comprehension ★ [p(form)|function] - production ★ Cue validity measured in corpora ★ Cue strength measured in experiments

35 Unified Model Cues Compete “Tigers”-as-Agent“Bear”-as-Agent competes The bear the tigers chases. preverbal positionSV agreementInitial Position

36 Unified Model L1/L2 Competition Adv + V V + Adv I often go... / Je vais souvent... competes Heavy Adv speaking English: speaking French: ADV 1st ADV 2nd

37 Unified Model Strength measured in experiments

38 Unified Model English Children

39 Unified Model Hungarian Children

40 Unified Model Italian Children

41 Unified Model English L1, Dutch L2 Dissertations by Janet McDonald and Kerry Kilborn

42 Unified Model Dutch L1, English L2

43 Unified Model Findings - 22 studies Validity predicts Strength. Children and L2 learners pick up frequent cues first, then they settle on reliable cues. For timed tasks, strong fast cues dominate. L2 learners attempt transfer, but then learn cues, as in L1. They gradually reach L1 levels of cue strength.

44 Unified Model 2. Maps Maps are central to the processing theory. They control transfer, entrenchment, and embodied encoding. Maps are emergent: - Neural systems: Jacobs & Jordan 1992 - Children: Karmiloff-Smith 1997 - Robots: Nolfi 1996, Tani 2002

45 Unified Model Self-organizing lexical maps Li, Farkas, MacWhinney - Neural network - computer simulation - L1 lexical learning - CHILDES input - no initial organization - short connections

46 Unified Model Gradual Emergence 50, 150, 250, 500 words

47 Unified Model Refining competition

48 Unified Model Bilingual self-organization ENGLISH SEMANTICS CHCHINESE SEMANTICS CHINESE PHONOLOGY ENGLISH PHONOLOGY ASSOCIATIVE CONNECTIONS (Hebbian learning) Self-organization Word Form Phonological Word Meaning Co-occurrence-based representation (derived from separate component exposed to bilingual corpus) Phonological Map Semantic Map Chinese Semantics Chinese Phonology

49 Unified Model Maps implement entrenchment Strong items dominate over weak. Late L2 items are parasitic on pre-existing L1 forms and maps

50 Unified Model Module Entrenchment Simultaneous Bilingualism LX LY balanced dominates L1 L2 Successive Bilingualism

51 Unified Model 3. Transfer Mapability ★ Item-based (want X) patterns will not transfer ★ Grammatical semantics can be a difficult map ★ Phonology, semantics, pragmatics all map and transfer Markedness ★ Unmarked pattern-based will: Adv + V ★ Marked pattern-based is weak: Adv + V + S ★ Semantic/phonological prototypes transfer Filtering ★ Japanese r/l second formant transitions. ★ English learners of tones.

52 Unified Model Examples taco -> t’aco wenn (if) -> when tell me a story -> say me a story install a new version -> install new version

53 Unified Model The Culprits Entrenchment Transfer (crosstalk) Learning your own errors Strategy blockage Social culprits Aging

54 Unified Model Social Culprits Overcommitment ★ too much email, too many committees Declining L2 contact environment Avoidance of L2 input Allegiance to L1

55 Unified Model Aging Loss of Auditory Acuity - age effects Loss of Motor Control - Parkinsonism Cell death -- both cortical and white matter Declining transmission speed Declining hippocampal storage Trauma

56 Unified Model Fighting back 1. Undoing transfer 2. Unblocking social barriers 3. Unblocking strategy barriers 4. Increasing differentiation and resonance

57 Unified Model Overcoming Parasitism CL2L1 turtle tortuga CL2L1 turtle tortuga

58 Unified Model ERP evidence of transfer - P600 The cat likes to eat. vs The cat likes to eating. Plausible (eat) Implausible (eating) PzPz P600 Osterhout & Nicol (1999) 5V5V 200400600800

59 Unified Model Su abuela cocina/*cocinando muy bien. Her aunt cooks/*cooking very well. L1 supports L2

60 Unified Model L1 (English) blocks attention El/los libros son muy interestantes. The/the books are very interesting.

61 Unified Model L2 cares, L1 oblivious Ellos fueron a una/*un fiesta. They went to a/a party.

62 Unified Model Behavioral Data

63 Unified Model 4. Chunking Task: Repeat 坐公共汽車去 Learn: gōnggòngqìchē “bus” 公共汽車  Syllables plus tone encodings fill working memory  Chunk: gōnggòng is linked to “public”  Chunk: qìchē is linked to “motor car” ★ Supportive links to characters ★ Compound is a weak chunk, weak tone sequence ★ Embed weak chunk in “sit ___ go” frame 坐 (公共汽車) 去

64 Unified Model Translation Disfluency Do you want to take a bus to Nanjing next week? Nǐ xiǎng xià ge xīngqī zuò gōnggòngqìchē qù Nánjīng ma? Chinese requires temporal before verb. About to say: Nǐ xiǎng zuò Pause …. Insert “xià ge xīngqī” Continue Result: Non-fluency

65 Unified Model Chunks mesh into slots sit + (vehicle slot) + go (adverb slot) + V (topic slot) + comment Fluent plan emerges from coordination of individual item-based patterns

66 Unified Model PSLC studies of Fluency Online Dictation -- French, Chinese Yuki Yoshimura’s CMU dissertation on Fluency in Japanese L2 - sentence repetition after reading and listening.

67 Unified Model Repetition and WM

68 Unified Model Omissions

69 Unified Model Adding Novel Words

70 Unified Model Friederici German Natives show ★ for semantic violations: N400 ★ for syntactic violations: ELAN & P600 L2 Russian natives - 5 years in Germany ★ for semantic violations: N400 ★ for syntactic violations: no ELAN, but P600 Brocanto and mini-Nihongo Learners: ELAN and P600 fMRI Conclusion: L1 and L2 use same areas, but L2 relies more on Broca’s

71 Unified Model 71 5. Buffers Competition occurs in buffers Incrementalism, role-slot filling This is developed in ★ MacWhinney (1987) ★ Kempen & Hoenkamp (1987) ★ Levelt (1990) ★ O’Grady (2006)

72 Unified Model 6. Resonance Graduated interval recall Multimodal consolidation Self-organized criticality

73 Unified Model Graduated interval recall Pimsleur 67

74 Unified Model Neural Basis Wittenburg et al. 2002

75 Unified Model Consolidation Circuits Sound Meaning Basal Ganglia Hippo campus Dynamic Scaffold Consolidation

76 Unified Model Chinese Resonance

77 Unified Model Consolidation and Time Bones, muscles, cell walls, mitochondria, and immune system becomes stronger after periods of use and breakage. These systems respond to pressures across time frames. (slow muscles, fast muscles) Neurons work the same way.

78 Unified Model Math Models: Pavlik 2006 t=time from practice d=decay rate n=number of presentations m=memory activation a=base decay rate c=scales effect of activation on decay u=maximal study benefit v=rise to asymptote speed

79 Unified Model Four Pools Pool 1 – item is strong, then wait Pool 2 – item is weak enough to make practice efficient but strong enough to make drilling more efficient Pool 3 – item is weak and retrieval will fail, so study practice is more efficient Pool 4 – unpracticed items Algorithm selects items in this order: 2, 3, 4, 1 Learned items are removed from pools

80 Unified Model Optimization really helps

81 Unified Model 7. Mental models We build up mental models through perspective-taking. Comprehensible input -- L2 speaker can construct a coherent mental model. L2 conversation-based teaching has to make sure the mental model is on track. Frames, scaffolds, can support this.

82 Unified Model 82 8. Codes Code-switching L2 is a code choice Codes involve perspective taking in mental models Role of video in learning, identification

83 Unified Model The Unified Model Competition is central. Both L1 and L2 are emergent. Item-based constructions compete in L1 and L2 learning. Transfer arises from entrenchment in maps. Fluency develops through chunk meshing. Resonance and spacing produce robust learning. Conversation supports perspective switching and model construction.

84 Unified Model Conclusions The Unified Model integrates our understanding of first and second language acquisition. Language learning relies on emergentist processes. Language can be taught and learned. Age-related effects arise from entrenchment and social commitment, not UG.

85 Unified Model 85 Links

86 Unified Model Aphasics - Word Order

87 Unified Model Aphasics - Agreement

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