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Presentation on theme: "C OMPUTER A SSISTED / AIDED L ANGUAGE L EARNING (CALL)"— Presentation transcript:


2 ● The search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning. (Levy) ● any process in which a learner uses a computer and as a result, improves his or her language.

3 ● The use of computer to help learn languages. ● A research field which explores the use of computational methods and techniques as well as new media for language learning and teaching.

4 ● How old is CALL? About 40 years. ● What kind of field of study is it? Interdisciplinary. ● What gave birth to CALL? Invention of computer.

5 The proliferation of computers will on day dispense us with teachers. CALL’s advantage over traditional teaching/learning methods has been questioned, because its performance is difficult by the lack of resources. CRITICISM CAMERON’S REPLY:

6 Computer is here to stay and its use both inside and outside the classroom will increase. Computers are not replacement for teachers, but helpful accessories to teaching, facilitative instruments for distance language learning and providers of a great wealth of cultural material which can provoke learning.


8 Warschauer divides the history of CALL into three stages: 1- Behaviorist CALL 2- Communicative CALL 3- Integrative CALL H ISTORY OF CALL

9 - Conceived in 1950s - Implemented in the 60s and 70s - Informed by behaviorist learning model stimulus – response – reinforcement + skill & drill exercises stimulus – response – reinforcement + skill & drill exercises - Computer as tutor ; helps the language learner as an instrument for delivering instructional materials to the students. B EHAVIORIST CALL

10 - Repetitive language drills (drill and practice) ● necessity of repeated exposure to the same material ● necessity of repeated exposure to the same material ● indefatigability of computer ● indefatigability of computer ● immediate non-judgmental feedback ● immediate non-judgmental feedback ● ability of computer to present instructional material on an ● ability of computer to present instructional material on an individualized basis individualized basis

11 Weakening point of behavioristic CALL : late 1970s and early 1980s Because of : 1- behavioristic approaches to language learning were ignored both at the theoretical and pedagogical levels. 2- The introduction of the microcomputer allowed a whole new range of possibilities, so the stage was set for a new phase.

12 - Late 70s and early 80s, coincident with the end of previous phase. - Focusing more on using the forms than on the forms themselves. - Implicit grammar teaching - Allow and encourage students to generate original utterances rather than just manipulate prefabricated language and use the target language with mastery. C OMMUNICATIVE CALL

13 Authentic communication is important. The computer remains the knower-of-the-right-answer and tutor, but the process of finding the right answer involves a fair amount of student choice, control, and interaction.

14 - Late 80s and early 90s -Critics still consider computers ad hoc and disconnected fashion Warschauer defines integrative CALL as : “a perspective which seeks both to integrate various skills and also integrate technology more fully into the language learning process. I NTEGRATIVE CALL

15 Despite all the hesitations and doubts, CALL is a necessary part of L2 classrooms. Advantages of the CALL according to Ariew and Frommer:Interaction Immediate feedback Error analysis Self-correctionReinforcement

16 3 typologies of CALL program Warschauer brings up 3 typologies of CALL program: a. Computer as a tutor b. Computer as stimulus c. Computer as a tool

17 Computer as a tutor: Grammar : drills on a single topic/variety of topics, games, tests of readiness, comprehensive multimedia packages. Listening : multimedia programs for children, general public, etc. Pronunciation: record and playback your own voice Reading: reading programs for ESL learners, for children, games.

18 Text reconstruction: putting texts together, managing letters, words, sentences, etc. Usually cheap. Vocabulary : drill and practice programs, e.g. synonyms. Games. Writing: mostly “computer as a tool “ software. Comprehensive tutorial programs: planned to teach ESL students a variety of skills.





23 Software not as a tutorial in itself, but as an instrument to generate : Analysis Analysis Critical thinking Critical thinking Discussion Discussion Writing Writing C OMPUTER AS STIMULUS

24 Word processing: e.g. Microsoft Word ® Grammar checkers: designed for native speakers, confusing and not recommended to ESL/EFL learners Concordancers: search through huge files of texts (corpora; plural of corpus) in order to find all the uses of a particular word or collocation. Confusing for beginners, but useful for advanced levels. C OMPUTER AS A TOOL

25 Collaborative writing: help students to work on their writing collaboratively on computers linked in a local area network. Reference: numerous encyclopedias and dictionaries on CD or DVD and online version. Internet: World Wide Web (W.W.W) – Email Authoring: enable teachers to insert new texts or dress up the activities.

26 From Traditional Passive To Discovery Exploration Excitement CALL Enhancing learner’s critical thinking, problem solving, communication skills.

27 CALI: Computer-Assisted Language Instruction more teaching oriented more teaching oriented CALL: Computer-Assisted Language Learning CBLT: Computer-Based Language Training definable, measurable objectives definable, measurable objectives CELL: Computer-Enhanced Language Learning ; computer makes learning better

28 IT IT: Information Technology ICT ICT: Information and Communication Technologies IT or ICT for LT NBLT: Network-Based Language Teaching TALL: Technology-Assisted Language Learning TELL: Technology-Enhanced Language Learning : more than just computers Outside the language teaching

29 Thank YouThank YouThank YouThank You Z EYNAB S ALMANI 1392.7.10


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