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Acceleration 012-10997 r1.04. Acceleration 012-10768 r1.04.

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Presentation on theme: "Acceleration 012-10997 r1.04. Acceleration 012-10768 r1.04."— Presentation transcript:

1 Acceleration 012-10997 r1.04

2 Acceleration 012-10768 r1.04

3 The Snapshot button is used to capture the screen. The Journal is where snapshots are stored and viewed. The Share button is used to export or print your journal to turn in your work. Introduction Journals and Snapshots Note: You may want to take a snapshot of the first page of this lab as a cover page for your journal. Each page of this lab that contains the symbol should be inserted into your journal. After completing a lab page with the snapshot symbol, tap (in the upper right corner) to insert the page into your journal. Acceleration

4 Lab Challenge What does it mean to decelerate? What does it mean to accelerate? Acceleration

5 Background Acceleration is the rate at which the velocity of an object changes. Since velocity is the speed and direction of an object's motion, acceleration can mean speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction. velocity final – velocity initial = acceleration time Acceleration

6 When a car is speeding up, its acceleration is in the same direction of its velocity: both acceleration and velocity are positive or negative. When a car is slowing down its acceleration is in the opposite direction of its velocity: velocity and acceleration have opposite signs. A car can have a positive acceleration when it is speeding up and a negative acceleration when it is slowing down depending on its direction of travel....Background Acceleration

7 Constant acceleration means that an object's velocity is changing at an uniform rate. For example, when you throw a ball into the air it experiences a velocity change of 9.8 m/s every 1 second. Since the acceleration's direction is pointing towards the Earth, the ball will decelerate (slow down) when moving up and accelerate (speed up) when falling down....Background Acceleration

8 Self-Check 1.When a car's acceleration is negative but its velocity is positive, the car is: a)slowing down b)speeding up c)maintaining constant speed d)undefinable Acceleration

9 2.Does a cart rolling freely up and then back down an inclined track illustrate constant acceleration? Justify your answer. Self-Check Acceleration

10 Collect all of these materials before beginning the lab. Motion Sensor Cart with Plunger Track End Stop Track Pivot Clamp Dynamics Track Rod and Base Note: Angle indicator not used in this lab Materials and Equipment Acceleration

11 The steps to the left are part of the procedure for this lab activity. They are not in the right order. Determine the correct sequence of the steps, then take a snapshot of this page. C. Release the cart from the elevated end of the track to produce a velocity versus time graph. D. Assemble the inclined track with the end stop at one end and the motion sensor at the opposite end. A. Repeat data collection, this time pushing the cart up the inclined track toward the motion sensor. B. Determine the cart's acceleration from each trial using the slope of the graphed data. Sequencing Challenge Acceleration

12 Setup 1.Attach the End Stop to the lower end of the Dynamics Track. 2.Mount the track to your rod and base using the pivot clamp, slightly inclining the track at one end. 3.Attach the Motion Sensor to the elevated end of the track with the face of the sensor pointed down the length of the track. 4.Connect the Motion Sensor to the SPARK Science Learning System. Note: Make certain the switch on the top of the motion sensor is set to the cart icon. Acceleration

13 1.Set the cart at the top of the inclined end of the track holding it ~15 cm from the Motion Sensor. 2.Tap to begin data collection. 3.Release the cart allowing it to roll down the track. 4.Catch the cart at the bottom of the inclined track just before it hits the end stop. 5.Tap to stop data collection. Collect Data Acceleration

14 6.Set the cart at the bottom of the inclined track against the end stop. 7.Tap to begin data collection 8.Using your hand, push the cart up the inclined track (avoid hitting the motion sensor) allowing it to roll back down. 9.Again, catch the cart just before it hits the end stop. 10.Tap to stop data collection. Collect Data Acceleration

15 1.During the period when the cart was in motion, are the velocity versus time graphs straight lines? Refer to the previous page if necessary. How is the acceleration of the cart changing if your velocity versus time graphs are straight lines? Analysis Acceleration

16 2.Although the paths of the cart in both trials were different, the slopes of the velocity versus time graphs for each trial are the same (during the period in which the cart was in motion). Why is this the case? Justify your answer. Analysis Acceleration

17 Analysis 3.Looking at the velocity versus time graph, what would a negative slope tell you about the cart's acceleration? A positive slope? Acceleration

18 Analysis 4.What was causing the cart to accelerate after releasing it from rest at the top of the track? Was that acceleration constant? Acceleration

19 Analysis 5.Describe the motion of an object whose velocity versus time graph is a horizontal straight line (a slope of zero). Acceleration

20 Synthesis 1.The term "acceleration" is used in our everyday lives and language, but is often used in a non-physical context. Now that you have developed a physical definition of "acceleration" give an example where the physical definition matches the "everyday" definition. Give an example where they are different. Acceleration

21 2.Modern aircraft carriers use a steam powered catapult system to launch jets from a very short range. These catapults can provide a constant acceleration to bring jets up to speed in only 2 seconds. If each jet requires a minimum take- off speed of 82.3 m/s, how much acceleration must the catapult supply so the jet can take off? Synthesis Acceleration

22 Synthesis 3.How many different devices in a car help to accelerate the vehicle? What are they? Acceleration

23 Multiple Choice Question 1.If the acceleration due to gravity is -9.8 m/s 2, which of the following choices would best describe the acceleration of a 0.5 kg frictionless block sliding down the track used in our experiment? a)-3.5 m/s 2 b)3.5 m/s 2 c)0 m/s 2 d)Undefinable Acceleration

24 Multiple Choice Question 2.A cart with an initial velocity of zero and a final velocity of 12 m/s after 2 s will have an acceleration of a)4 m/s 2 b)6 m/s 2 c)8 m/s 2 d)12 m/s 2 Acceleration

25 Multiple Choice Question 3.A race car starting from rest accelerates uniformly at a rate of 5 m/s 2. What is the car's speed after it has traveled for 5 s? a)5 m/s b)10 m/s c)20 m/s d)25 m/s Acceleration

26 You have completed the lab. Congratulations! Please remember to follow your teacher's instructions for cleaning-up and submitting your lab. Acceleration


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