Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Describing Motion in 1-D"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 2: Describing Motion in 1-D 1 Dimensional Motion = Motion in a Straight Line1
2Whether or not you are moving depends on your Frame of ReferenceWhether or not you are moving depends on yourpoint-of-view.From inside the box car, the woman in red is stationary (at rest).From outside the box car, the woman in red is moving.So what is it? Is she moving? Is she stationary?2
3Frame of Reference Here’s a “thought experiment” A B 26 m/s20 m/sTwo trains travel on parallel tracks past a platform.If you are standing on the platform, how fast does each travel?If you are on train A, how fast is train B travelling?If you are on train A, how fast are the other passengers on train A moving relative to YOU?3
4Unless otherwise stated, the earth will be used as the Frame of ReferenceGeneral Rule:Any measurement of position, distance, or speed must be made with respect to a reference frame.Unless otherwise stated,the earth will be used as thereference frame.4
5Distance / Displacement Distance: how far you travelled in total.Displacement: the change in distance.Distance is the total length (measured in meters) of travel along a path.Displacement is the change in position (measured in meters). It depends on the starting and ending points – not the path of travel.5
6Distance / Displacement Example: You walk 4 blocks North.What is your distance? What is your displacement?Example: You walk 4 blocks North then 7 blocks South.Example: You walk 4 blocks North, then 7 blocks South, then3 blocks North.6
7DisplacementX1X2Displacement = ∆X = X2 – X1Initial positionFinal positionDisplacement ONLY depends on the end points, NOT the path taken!7
8Distance does NOT have a direction. Displacement DOES have direction. Remember this :Distance does NOT have a direction.Displacement DOES have direction.On a number line (or a coordinate system) you can have positive or negative displacementyxCoordinate Plane8
9Distance Displacement Scalars & Vectors If a quantity has only a numerical value, it is a SCALAR.(it has magnitude)If a quantity has both a numerical value AND a direction associated with it, it is a VECTOR.(it has magnitude and direction)DistanceDisplacement9
10Speed is the distance traveled per time spent to How fast are you going?Speed is the distance traveled per time spent totravel. It is a Scalar whose units are m/s.S = d / tInstantaneous Speed – Instantaneous speed is the speed at a particular moment in time.Savg = Δd / ΔtAverage Speed – Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time it took to travel. It is the average speed of travel.Distance (a Scalar)Distance (a Scalar)10
11Velocity is the change in position (displacement) And WHERE are you going?Velocity is the change in position (displacement)per time spent to travel. It is a Vectorwhose units are m/s.Displacement (a Vector)V = ∆d / ∆tVelocity is a vector that is based on displacement,so you can change your velocity by changing your speedOR by changing your direction.The units for velocity are m/s11
12Position (or Displacement) vs Time Plotting Position vs. TimeThe basic motion plot we will study in Physics is:Position (or Displacement) vs TimeIt looks like this:The slope of aPosition vs. Time plot will give you theVELOCITY(X2,Y2)Position (m)(X1,Y1)Time (s)
13Calculating Velocity from a Position vs. Time Graph Remember: Velocity = Speed & Direction.= a VectorStraight line = constant velocityPositive slope = going away from youPosition (m)Time (s)Straight line = constant velocityNegative slope = coming back toward youPosition (m)Time (s)In Physics, the use of a negative sign shows directionSlope tutorial
14Calculating Velocity from a Position vs. Time Graph For objects moving with constant speed, the slope of the plot can tell you much information:Straight line = constant velocityMedium slope = medium velocityStraight line = constant velocityLow slope = low velocityPosition (m)Position (m)Time (s)Time (s)Straight line = constant velocityHigh slope = high velocityStraight line = constant velocityNo slope = no velocity (at rest)Position (m)Position (m)Time (s)Time (s)Velocity animation
15In front of you and coming at you. Position (m)YOUBehind you and going away from you.Time (s)Think of this axis as Your positionWhat do you think it means when . . .Negative Position AND Negative slopeQuestion:Behind you and going away from you.Answer:
16If the plot gives a linear graph, this tells you the object travelled with constant speed. If the plot gives a non-linear graph, then the speed is changing.Increasing speed (POWER GRAPH)(the slope keeps increasing)Position (m)Constant speed (LINEAR GRAPH)(the slope is constant)Time (s)
17When graphically analyzing the motion of an object, start with a position vs. time graph and see what type of motion it is. Look at the slope to gain more detailed info.Next step: do a velocity vs. time graph. The slope of such a graph will give you the ACCELERATION of the object.Acceleration- how much the velocity changes in a specified time interval.
18Acceleration is the slope of the graph (on a Velocity vs. Time Graph) Describe what is happening to the object.What is happening in section A?What is happening in section B?What is happening in section C?Velocity (m/s)30252015105BACTime (s)Acceleration is the slope of the graph (on a Velocity vs. Time Graph)Don’t confuse this with:Velocity is the slope of the graph (on a Position vs. Time Graph)
19Answers A: Object has increasing velocity (speeding up) Object has constant acceleration (straight line slope)a = (30-0)/(9-0) = 3.33 m/s2B: Object is travelling with constant velocity.Object has no acceleration (no slope)a = (30-30)/(12-6) = 0.00 m/s2C: Object has decreasing velocity (slowing down)Object has constant acceleration (deceleration)a = (0-30)/(15-12) = -10 m/s2Velocity (m/s)30252015105BACTime (s)9/19/11
20One last thingWhen looking at Velocity vs. Time Graphs, if you want to calculate the object’s displacement (change in position), calculate the area under the graph. For example:Velocity (m/s)The area under the line will give you the object’s displacement in the time interval specified.Displacement = area under lineDisplacement = ∆v * ∆t∆vTime (s)∆tDisplacement tutorial
21Acceleration Acceleration is a VECTOR – it has magnitude and direction Acceleration is the slope of a Velocity vs. Time graph.Acceleration is the change of velocity in a specified time interval.a = ∆v / ∆t where: ∆v = vfinal – vinitial∆t = tfinal – tinitialThe symbol for Acceleration is: aThe units for Acceleration are: m/s2
22acceleration is the slope of the graph on a time vs. velocity graph OK, let’s talk a little more about acceleration . . .We already know that acceleration is how fast your velocity changes.acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.acceleration is the slope of the graph on a time vs. velocity graphLet's see how velocity and acceleration at related for objects in motion:1. If the object is moving away, it has positive velocity.2. If the object is moving at you, it has negative velocity.3. If the object is speeding up, it has positive acceleration.4. If he object is slowing down it has negative acceleration.
23What would be happening if an object has positive velocity and positive acceleration? What would be happening if an object has negative velocity and positive acceleration?What would happen if an object has positive velocity and negative acceleration?What would happen if an object has negative velocity and negative acceleration?moving away from you and increasing speedmoving at from you and increasing speedmoving away from you and decreasing speedmoving at from you and decreasing speed
24This is called: free fall We know that in our lives, a lot of forces can cause objects to accelerate or decelerate (negative acceleration)In the lab, you rolled a cart down an inclined plane and saw that it accelerated due to gravity. You calculated its acceleration from the plot of a time vs. velocity graph.As the angle of inclination of the plane increases, the cart will experience greater and greater acceleration. (it speeds up faster – the rate of change of velocity)The greatest value of acceleration that an object can have without outside forces on it is 9.81 m/s2. This is the value that gravity will accelerate objects when they fall on their own in a vacuum.This is called: free fall
25Free FallGalileo dropped two balls of different mass from the Leaning Tower of Pisa and found that both landed at the same time.He proved that gravity accelerates allobjects to the ground at the same rate.Based on his calculations, when all objects fall freely, they accelerate at 9.81 m/s2 or about 32 ft/s2.(neglecting air resistance)
26This means that for every second that an object falls freely, its velocity increases by 9.81 m/s. Here are the graphical representations of an object in freefall:positionvelocityPower graph =Linear graph = constant accelerationIncreasing velocitySlope of line = a = 9.81 m/s2timetime
27Let's look at data analysis of an object initially at rest (not moving) and dropped freely.
28They are the same, just opposite directions !!!!! Freefall can also be considered to be when you throw an object straight up into the air.Think about this:If you drop a ball, it starts out with zero velocity (at rest) and has velocity at the end of its travel.If you throw a ball up into the air, it starts out with velocity you give it and has zero velocity at the end of its travel.They are the same, just opposite directions !!!!!
29Analyzing Motion via Equations (solving Physics problems) So far, we have solved motion problems by graphical means.For example: solve the following problem:A car travels 24m in 3s. What is its velocity?You would have plotted this out on a time vs. position graph and found the slope of the line.24slope = ∆y = (24-0) = 8m/s∆x (3-0)Position (m)3Time (s)
30U write your unknown(s). E write the equation you will use. Now let’s solve it with equations we know How about v = ∆x∆tSo, solve the following problem:A car travels 24m in 3s. What is its velocity?Use the GUESS Method . . .G write your givens.U write your unknown(s).E write the equation you will use.S substitute the given values into the equation.S solve the equation (using correct units!)(and I HIGHLY recommend drawing it also!)given:∆x = 24m∆t = 3sv = ?v = ∆x / ∆tv = 24m / 3sV = 8m/s
31Analyzing Freefall via Equations (solving Physics problems) OK, we now know that when we drop an object, it will increase its velocity as it falls.Let’s try this freefall problem:A ball is dropped off a cliff. It falls for 4s and accelerates at 9.81 m/s2.How fast is it going?Now let’s take that information and apply it to find out more about it’s fall . . .How far did it travel?Make sure you use GUESS !!!!!!
32Kinematic Equations 2 Equations we already know: Speed Velocity AccelerationS = d / t v = ∆d / ∆t a = ∆v / ∆tand: ∆v = vfinal – vinitial ∆t = tfinal – tinitial vavg = (vfinal + vinitial)2
33When we talk about objects moving with constant acceleration, We can introduce three major equations: The Kinematic Equations.
37How to solve motion problems using the Kinematic Equations Read the problem.Draw the problem.GUESS the problem.When you get to E – writing the Equation, determine which equation is a “best – fit” given the information you have and what unknown you are looking to find.Notice that 2 of the Kinematic equations involve time and 2 involve displacement.
38Let’s try a couple problems: An elephant is dropped off a tall building.It falls for 7s. How fast is it going when it hitsthe ground below?A mouse is also dropped off a tall building. It falls for 7s also. How tall is the building?Based on what you know, which animal was dropped off the building first? WHY?Physics Man (the ULTIMATE SUPERHERO) takes off to rescue a runaway speeding train by using the Laws of Physics. The train is 50m away and he only has 4s before the train will crash. How fast must he accelerate to save the train and all the people?