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F28PL1 Programming Languages Lecture 2: Assembly Language 1.

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Presentation on theme: "F28PL1 Programming Languages Lecture 2: Assembly Language 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 F28PL1 Programming Languages Lecture 2: Assembly Language 1

2 CISC & RISC CISC: complex instruction set computer original CPUs very simple poorly suited to evolving high level languages extended with new instructions – e.g. function calls, non-linear data structures, array bound checking, string manipulation implemented in microcode – sub-machine code for configuring CPU sub-components – 1 machine code == > 1 microcode e.g. Intel X86 architecture

3 CISC & RISC CISC introduced integrated combinations of features – e.g. multiple address modes, conditional execution – required additional circuitry/power – multiple memory cycles per instruction – over elaborate/engineered many feature combinations not often used in practise could lead to loss of performance better to use combinations of simple instructions

4 CISC & RISC RISC: reduced instruction set computer return to simpler design general purpose instructions with small number of common features – less circuitry/power – execute in single cycle code size grew performance improved e.g. ARM, MIPS

5 ARM Advanced RISC Machines UK company originally Acorn – made best selling BBC Microcomputer in 1980s world leading niche processors – 2009: 90% of all embedded processors – mobile phones, media players, games, peripherals etc – e.g. Nokia, iPod, iPad, Blackberry, Nintendo

6 ARM 32 bit RISC processor architecture family many variants general reference in library: – W. Hohl, ARM Assembly Language, CRC Press, 2009 – ARM7TDMI ARM does not make chips licences the IP core (intellectual property) logic design to chip manufacturers

7 Cortex-M3 ARM CPU in STM32-Discovery board Thumb2 instruction set – based on ARMV7 – subset of full ARM instructions – 16 bit length instructions Cortex-M3 manual http://infocenter.arm.com/help/topic/com.arm.doc.dui05 52a/DUI0552A_cortex_m3_dgug.pdf http://infocenter.arm.com/help/topic/com.arm.doc.dui05 52a/DUI0552A_cortex_m3_dgug.pdf

8 MDK-ARM ARM development environment for: – C & assembler – many ARM-based systems includes simulator free restricted download via: http://www.keil.com/arm/mdkbasic.asp MDK-ARM/Cortex-M3 guide http://www.st.com/internet/com/TECHNICAL_RESOURCES /TECHNICAL_LITERATURE/USER_MANUAL/CD00283786.pd f http://www.st.com/internet/com/TECHNICAL_RESOURCES /TECHNICAL_LITERATURE/USER_MANUAL/CD00283786.pd f

9 Cortex-M3 memory map linear 4GB address space modified Harvard architecture in CPU Code SRAM Peripheral External RAM External Device Vendor Specific External Peripheral Bus Internal Peripheral Bus 0x00000000 0x20000000 0x40000000 0x60000000 0xA0000000 0xE0040000 0xE0000000 0xE0100000 0xFFFFFFFF 0.5GB 1GB 0.5GB

10 Memory linear addressing 2 descending stacks – main stack – process stack – used by OS all operations based on registers must move data between registers & memory

11 Registers 16 * 32 bit registers working registers – R0-R7 – low registers – R8-R12 – high registers R13 – stack pointer (SP) R14 - link register (LR) R15 – program counter (PC) PSR – program status register – bits for negative (N), zero (Z), carry (C), overflow (V)

12 Data formats word – 32 bits – long half word – 16 bits – int byte – 8 bits – char

13 Programming approach in high level programming: – identify variables & types – compiler maps these to memory & data representation – use of memory v registers invisible in low level programming – must make explicit use of memory & registers – must choose data representation registers much faster than memory try to map variables to registers what if more variables than registers...?

14 Example: sum of 1 st 10 integers we write: #define MAX 11 int s; int n; n = 0; while(n { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/11/3340457/slides/slide_14.jpg", "name": "Example: sum of 1 st 10 integers we write: #define MAX 11 int s; int n; n = 0; while(n

15 Example: sum of 1 st 10 integers we write: #define MAX 11 int s; int n; n = 0; while(n { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/11/3340457/slides/slide_15.jpg", "name": "Example: sum of 1 st 10 integers we write: #define MAX 11 int s; int n; n = 0; while(n

16 Example: sum of first 10 integers s == r2 - register 2 n == r1 – register 1 MOVS r2,#0x00 move hexadecimal constant 0x00 to register 2 set condition code flags MOVS r1,#0x00 move hexadecimal constant 0x00 to register 2 set condition code flags B TEST branch to label TEST

17 Example: sum of first 10 integers LOOPADD r2,r2,r1 label LOOP put in r2 sum of r2 and r1 ADDS r1,r1,#1 put in r1 sum of r1 and decimal constant #1 set condition code flags

18 Example: sum of first 10 integers TESTCMP r1,#0x0A label TEST compare r1 and hexadecimal constant #0x0A == 10 set condition code flags BLT LOOP branch to label LOOP if flags indicate “less than”

19 Instruction format mnemonic operands – general format – operands depend on instruction mnemonic – meaningful short form – reminds us what instruction does ARM uses {...} for options Rd or Rm == register - r0.. r15

20 Operands first operand usually rd Operand2 == flexible 2 nd operand – constant – Rm constant == 8 hexadecimal digits constant == decimal – size of decimal depends on instruction # imm16 == 0-65535 == 16 bit

21 MOV: move MOV Rd, Operand2  Rd = Operand2 don’t update condition code flags MOVS Rd, Operand2 as MOV but update condition code flags MOV Rd, #imm16  Rd = imm16

22 ADD: addition ADD Rd, Rn, Operand2  Rd = Rn + Operand2 ADD Rn, Operand2  Rn = Rn + Operand2 ADDC add with carry like ADD + carry flag ADDS/ADDCS like ADD/ADDC but set condition code flags

23 SUB: subtraction SUB Rd, Rn, Operand2  Rd = Rn - Operand2 SUB Rn, Operand2  Rn = Rn - Operand2 SUBC subtract with carry like SUB -1 if carry flag not set SUBS/SUBCS like SUB/SUBC but set condition code flags

24 CMP: compare CMP Rn, Operand2 subtract Operand2 from Rn BUT...... do not modify Rn – otherwise same as SUBS update Z, N, C, V flags CMN RN, Operand2 add Operand2 to Rn BUT...... do not modify Rn otherwise same as ADDS update Z, N, C, V flags

25 Flags N – 1 if result <0; 0 otherwise Z – 1 if result =0; 0 otherwise C – 1 if result led to carry; 0 otherwise – i.e. X+Y > 2 32 – i.e. X-Y >= 0

26 Flags V – 1 if result led to overflow; 0 otherwise (-) == negative (+) == positive – i.e. (-)X+(-)Y > 0 – i.e. (+)X+(+)Y < 0 – i.e. (-)X-(+)Y > 0 – i.e. (+X)-(-Y) < 0

27 B: branch B label branch to label i.e. reset PC to address for label B cond label branch on condition to label

28 condition suffixflags EQ == equalZ=1 NE == not equalZ=0 CS/HS == carry set/ higher or same - unsignedC=1 CC/LO == carry clear/lower - unsignedC=0 MI == negativeN=1 PL == positive or 0N=0 VS == overflowV=1 VC == no overflowV=0

29 condition suffixflags HI == higher - unsignedC=1 & Z=0 LS == lower or same - unsignedC=0 or Z=1 GE == greater than or equal - signedN=V LT == less than - signedN!=V GT == greater than - signedZ=0 & N=V LE == less than or equal, signedZ=1 & N!=V AL == any valuedefault if not cond

30 Label identifier can precede any line of assembler represents the address of: – instruction – literal data relative to program counter (PC) turned into PC + offset in machine code

31 NOP: no operation NOP do nothing use for padding/layout no cost

32 Layout ARM assembly language is layout sensitive must precede instruction with a tab for labelled instruction, use tab immediately after label can’t use equivalent number of spaces

33 Example: multiply by adding m == x*y int x; int y; int m; x = 8; y = 10; m = 0; while(y!=0) { m = m+x; y = y-1; } x == R1; y == R2; m == R3 MOV R1,#0x08 MOV R2,#0x0A MOV R3,#0x00 LOOPCMP R2,#0x00 BEQ DONE ADD R3,R1 SUB R2,#0x01 B LOOP DONENOP

34 Register name definition name RN expression expression  0..15 name renames the register e.g. x RN 1 y RN 2 m RN 3 MOV x,#0x08 MOV y,#0x0A MOV m,#0x00 LOOPCMP y,#0x00 BEQ DONE ADD m,x SUB y,#0x01 B LOOP DONENOP

35 Constant name definition name EQU expression name is replace with value from expression e.g. xRN 1 yRN 2 m RN 3 xinitEQU 8 yinitEQU 10 MOV x,#xinit MOV y,#yinit MOV m,#0x00 LOOPCMP y,#0x00 BEQ DONE ADD m,x SUB y,#0x01 B LOOP DONENOP


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