State Machines Timing Computer Bus Computer Performance Instruction Set Architectures RISC / CISC Machines.
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State Machines Timing Computer Bus Computer Performance Instruction Set Architectures RISC / CISC Machines
Combinational vs. Sequential Logic There are two types of “combination” locks 4184 30 15 5 1020 25 Combinational: Success depends only on the values, not the order in which they are set. Sequential: Success depends on the sequence of values (e.g, R-13, L-22, R-3). A Computer is an example of a Sequential Circuit
Information Storage: D Flip Flop (D Latch) D | Qn+1 0 | 0 1 | 1
Register A register stores a multi-bit (vector) value. –We use a collection of D-latches, all controlled by a common write enable pulse, call it WE. –When the write enable WE=1, the n-bit value D is written to register.
Back to our Sequential Logic This one. 4184 30 15 5 1020 25 Combinational: Success depends only on the values, not the order in which they are set. Sequential: Success depends on the sequence of values (e.g, R-13, L-22, R-3).
A Finite State Machine Combinational logic –Determine outputs at each state. –Determine next state. Storage elements –Maintain state representation. State Machine Combinational Logic Circuit Storage Elements InputsOutputs Clock
The Clock Frequently, a clock circuit triggers transition from one state to the next. At the beginning of each clock cycle, the state machine makes a transition, based on the current state and the external inputs (Synchronous). –Not always required. In lock example, the input itself triggers a transition (Asynchronous). “1” “0” time One Cycle
State The state of a system is a snapshot of all the relevant elements of the system at the moment the snapshot is taken.
Finite State Machine A description of a system with the following components: 1.A finite number of states 2.A finite number of external inputs 3.A finite number of external outputs 4.An explicit specification of all state transitions 5.An explicit specification of what determines each external output value Often described by a state diagram: - The set of all possible states. - Inputs that trigger state transitions. - Outputs associated with each state (or with each transition).
State of Sequential Lock Our lock example has four different states, labelled A-D: A: The lock is not open, and no relevant operations have been performed. B:The lock is not open, and the user has completed the R-13 operation. C:The lock is not open, and the user has completed R-13, followed by L-22. D:The lock is open.
State Diagram Shows states (e.g. A) and actions (e.g. R-13) that cause a transition between states.
Another Example of a State Machine Repeat Forever: Fetch Instruction Fetch Operand(s) Execute Operation Store Result Check for Interrupt
Computer Bus Buses are composed of three sets of lines Not all devices will use all lines in each category
Assessing Computer Performance Clock Speed ? Response time ? Throughput ? Response Time or Throughput for what type of application(s) ? Power Consumed ? Cost ? Reliability ? Ease of Use ? Applications Supported ? Portability ? Access ? ?
Instruction Set Architectures What impacts a machine language instruction format ? Operation codes Number of Operands (Source and Destination) Address Modes Address Range Address Granularity (Byte, Word, etc) Number of Registers (and Register Sets) Types of Processing (String, integer, FP, Arrays,..) Machine Word Length Variability of Instruction Length Context Switching Support Stack Support Interrupt Support Operating System Support Applications (Computation, Control, Embedded System, Data base, HLL Languages Supported Hierarchy of “Versions” Speed Requirements I/O Support Instruction mix
Number of Operands 3 Operands 2 Operands 1 Operand 0 Operands
Designing an ISA 8 Bit words 16 Bit words 32 Bit words Multiple words
CPU Hardware What might be added ? Register Sets Stack Longer Instruction Register Address Registers Context Switch Registers Cache Partition Pointer Registers
CISC – Complex Instruction Set Computer RISC – Reduced Instruction Set Computer Superscalar – Multiple similar processing units are used to execute instructions in parallel Multicore – Multiple Processors executing instruction in a complementary way Some Classes of Today’s Computer Architectures
Driving force for CISC Software costs far exceed hardware costs Increasingly complex high level languages A “Semantic” gap between HLL & ML Word size was increasing. This Leads to: – Large instruction sets – More addressing modes – Hardware implementations of HLL statements
Intention of CISC Ease compiler writing Improve execution efficiency Support more complex HLLs
RISC Key features: – Large number of general purpose registers (or use of compiler technology to optimize register use) – Limited and simple instruction set – Emphasis on optimising the instruction pipeline & memory management, i.e. leverage newer hardware complexities now potentially available.
RISC Characteristics A Single Instruction size, typically 4 bytes A small number of data addressing modes, typically less than 5 No indirect Addressing that requires two memory accesses No operations that combine load/store with arithmetic No more than one memory addressed operand per instruction No arbitrary data alignment for load/store operations Large number of instruction bits for integer register addressing, typically at least 5 Large number of instruction bits for FP register addressing, typically at least 4
Which is better? Is the execution of large special purpose instructions more efficient than execution of many simple instructions ? Which programs are really “shorter” ? Which are really faster ? What is the impact of having to support many languages? What are the legacy challenges ? What are the cost tradeoffs ? Can compilers be better made to exploit CISC or RISC better ? Complexity ? Which can better exploit hardware features ?