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Continuous Insulation for Code- Compliant, High-Performance Walls

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Presentation on theme: "Continuous Insulation for Code- Compliant, High-Performance Walls"— Presentation transcript:

1 Continuous Insulation for Code- Compliant, High-Performance Walls

2 Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association (PIMA) Provider Number: G501 Continuous Insulation for Code-Compliant, High-Performance Walls Course Number: CICCHPWLV Speaker Name/s Date

3 Credit(s) earned on completion of this course will be reported to AIA CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This course is registered with AIA CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. _______________________________________ Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

4 This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. © PIMA 2012 Copyright Materials

5 This presentation provides a comprehensive overview of the application of foam sheathing as continuous insulation. The presentation will instruct attendees in five topic areas; continuous insulation (CI), applications, energy code compliance, building code compliance and installation detailing. Attendees will gain a comprehensive understanding of the use, properties and benefits of foam sheathing as continuous insulation. Course Description

6 Learning Objectives 1. Define continuous insulation (CI), the role of CI and types and properties. 2. Identify the applications of CI, including its use as exterior insulation, water-resistive barrier (WRB), air barrier (AB) and multi-functional (composite sheathing). 3. Understand energy code compliance, including prescriptive, u-value and performance paths. 4. Understand building code compliance, including fire, structural (bracing, wind pressure, cladding) and building science (WRB, AB, vapor barrier [VR] – moisture control) considerations. At the end of this course, participants will be able to:

7 Topical Outline Topic #1 – Continuous Insulation – Definition – Role of Continuous Insulation – Types and Properties Topic #2 – Applications – Exterior Insulation – Water-Resistive Barriers (WRB) – Air Barriers (AB) – Multi-functional

8 Topical Outline (cont’d) Topic #3 – Energy Code Compliance – Prescriptive Path – U-value Path – Performance Path Topic #4 – Building Code Compliance – Fire – Structural – Building Science

9 Topical Outline (cont’d) Topic #5 – Installation Detailing

10 Introduction Why learn about continuous insulation (CI)? – Used since the early 1900s – Used on low-slope commercial roofs for a long time Scope: CI wall applications only

11 Introduction About PIMA – Represents polyiso insulation manufacturers and industry suppliers Mission – Unified voice for rigid polyiso industry – Advocate for safe, cost-effective, sustainable and energy-efficient construction – Leadership, advocacy and education

12 Introduction – Polyiso Widely-used and cost-effective Responsible impact on the environment Closed-cell, rigid foam board insulation – Offices – Health facilities – Retail and industrial manufacturing facilities – Warehouses – Educational institutions

13 Introduction – Polyiso High thermal performance – Product of choice for energy-aware building owners, homebuilders and consumers

14 Introduction – Polyiso Key attributes: – Highest R-value per inch of thickness – Moisture-resistant, water-repellent panel – Resistant to solvents – Excellent dimensional stability – Superior fire performance

15 Introduction – Polyiso Key attributes of polyiso include: – Service temperature: -75°F (-60°C) to 225°F (107°C) – Long-term R-value – Recycled content – Zero ozone depletion potential – Virtually no global warming potential

16 Topic #1 – Continuous Insulation Definition (ASHRAE 90.1)

17 Role of CI

18 Kinds of Continuous Insulation Rigid Foam Plastic Sheathing – EPS, ASTM C578 – XPS, ASTM C578 – Polyiso, ASTM C1289

19 Kinds of Continuous Insulation Spray foam – SPF Others – Rock wool – Fiberglass boards – Fiberboard CI has been in successful use for more than half a century!

20 R-value per Inch Rigid foam plastic sheathing – High R-value per inch – Low cost Various ASTM “types” Successful use on roofs and walls

21 Water Resistance Stringent water absorption resistance requirements

22 Water Resistance (Source: APA)

23 Moisture Sorption Comparison

24 Durability Polyiso sheathing – Does not rot, decay or corrode Other wall sheathing – Prone to moisture damage

25 Topic #2 – Applications of CI Exterior Insulation Residential – Minimum R5 CI can be used for climate zones 4 Marine and 5 and above in the 2009 IECC. – Minimum R5 can be used for climate zones 3 and above in the 2012 IECC. Exterior Insulation Commercial – Minimum R3.8 CI can be used for all climate zones in the 2012 IECC. Meets energy code R-values or U-values for walls

26 Applicable to Various Wall Types

27 CI Mitigates Thermal Bridging Continuous layer of thermal insulation – Important for steel framing – Effective insulating concrete/masonry walls – Considered a “best practice” by building science experts – Avoid cold wall surfaces

28 Thermal Bridging Creative CI detailing mitigates this stud challenge

29 Applications of CI (cont’d) Air Barrier (AB) – Most foam sheathing meets AB requirements Check with manufacturer – Key to seal joints – Ideal approach is dual air-barrier

30 Applications of CI (cont’d) Water-Resistive Barrier (WRB) – Only applies to approved products – Approved flashing tape required – Quality installations = durable Rigorous code acceptance testing Very water- and air-infiltration resistant

31 WRB Installation (NIST Net-Zero Energy House / BSC / ARES) Building Science Corporation

32 Topic #3 – Energy Code Compliance U.S. Climate Zones

33 Why Energy Conservation? Even small improvements can have a big impact – Energy code improvements can break even mortgage cost in 10 months

34 Why Energy Conservation?


36 Three Basic Approaches for Insulating Light-Frame Exterior Walls 1.Cavity insulation only 2.Cavity insulation + continuous insulation 3.Continuous insulation (CI) only

37 Prescriptive Compliance Path (Walls) Continuous Insulation (CI) Prescriptive path is based on nominal R-values of insulation, not actual R-value of the assembly

38 Energy Code Compliance Equal to or Exceeded Easier with Polyiso R-value of 6 per inch

39 U-factor Building Performance Compliance Path Use this approach to: – Explore alternatives to the prescriptive wall insulation – More CI, less CI; More cavity, less cavity; etc. Must use code-compliant insulation materials Must substantiate U-value for assembly NOTE: U = 1/R act ≠ 1/R nom

40 U-factor Building Performance Path (cont’d) This table is for Residential Buildings

41 Building Performance Path Make full use of trade-offs or demonstrate whole-building compliance – Requires approved energy modeling

42 Topic #4 – Building Code Compliance – Fire Fire safety requirements for foam sheathing – IBC Chapter 26 – IRC Section R316 – Comprehensive and effective

43 Foam and OSB Comparison

44 Fire Performance Advantages of Polyiso Sheathing Thermoset material Stays intact during fire exposure Remains in place during ASTM E84 tunnel testing – Meets or exceeds flame spread ratings

45 Fire Performance Advantages of Polyiso Sheathing Not all foam sheathing materials are equal – Thermoplastic materials (e.g. polystyrene) Soften at 165°F Melt at approximately 200°F Drip and can continue to burn

46 Exterior Flame Spread NFPA 285 assembly testing – Not required for Type V construction and some 1-story construction – Not required for IRC construction Jesse Beitel, Hughes Associates, Inc.

47 NFPA 285 Assembly Listings NFPA 285 – Required for multi-story Type I, II, III and IV buildings that contain foam plastic insulation – Many assemblies are approved – Contact PIMA members ACC FSC Link to Fire Performance Material Material Material

48 Topic #4 – Building Code Compliance – Structural Structural – Wall Bracing – Wind Pressure – Cladding Attachment

49 Structural Code Requirements are No Different for Walls with CI Integration with Wall Bracing (IRC Section R602.10, IBC section2308.3) – Must have bracing with or without CI (no difference) Integration with framing requirements – stud sizing, connections, wind uplift load path, etc. – Must meet all framing requirements with or without CI (no difference) Wind pressure resistance of exterior wall covering assemblies (IRC R703.1.2, IBC 1403.3) – All must provide wind pressure resistance

50 Wall Bracing Design factors impact wall bracing decisions Code-compliant bracing methods: – Over-sheathing – Foam between and/or over intermittent braced wall panels All methods have limitations, advantages and disadvantages

51 Wind Pressure Resistance 2009/2012 IRC code provision proposed by PIMA – Ensures all sheathing materials and claddings meet the code

52 Why? All Wall Coverings or Sheathings are Subject to Wind Damage This is not just a CI problem… Wood structural panels Fiber board Foam sheathing

53 Foam Sheathing Wind Pressure Requirements Foam sheathing must resist wind pressure as part of a wall covering assembly : – Cladding/furring secures foam to resist negative design wind pressure Typical fasteners intended for temporary wind conditions – Foam sheathing material must: Span between studs Have adequate bending strength

54 Code Compliance Resources (wind pressure) TER No. 1006–01 – – Provides path for code compliance and building official approval ANSI/SBCA/FS 100–2012 –

55 Vinyl Siding Over Foam Sheathing (wind pressure) IRC 2009/2012:

56 DOE/IBHS/ACC-FSC/NAHBRC/VSI Whole Building Wind Tunnel Test

57 Results – OSB/wrap/vinyl

58 Results – CI/vinyl (vinyl removed)

59 Cladding Attachment ACC-FSC, NYSERDA and SFA research – Adopted in NY energy code TER No. 1006-01 Connection requirements Code compliance Proprietary fasteners/connectors also available Siding fastener embedment must be maintained

60 Topic #4 – Building Code Compliance – Building Science Building Science – Water-Resistive Barriers (WRB) – Air Barriers (AB) – Vapor Retarders (VR) – Moisture Control

61 Water-Resistive Barrier WRBs required on all exterior walls Code requires No. 15 asphalt felt or equal Rain water is main concern IRC section R703.2. IBC section 1404.2 is similar.

62 WRB (cont’d) WRB equivalence – Confirmed by code compliance technical evaluation report Foam sheathing products + flashing tapes = WRB Meets energy code and WRB requirements – Designer/Builder must consider cost of WRB and insulation strategy

63 Wait a minute! Does foam sheathing trap water in walls with vapor retarder on the outside of a wall? – Non-drainable EIFS contains foam sheathing – Not so fast!

64 Past EIFS Problems are Misapplied to CI Past problems with EIFS – No drainage of cladding – No WRB layer THESE PAST PROBLEMS WITH EIFS HAVE ALL BEEN ADDRESSED IN MODERN BUILDING CODES

65 Past EIFS Problems are Misapplied to CI Past problems with EIFS – Face sealing not done or done incorrectly – Leaky window units – Roof/wall flashing not installed or improperly installed – Used with interior vapor barrier in mixed warm-humid climates THESE PAST PROBLEMS WITH EIFS HAVE ALL BEEN ADDRESSED IN MODERN BUILDING CODES

66 WRB Addresses the “H 2 0 Fear” WRBs – Required for nearly all sidings and wall assemblies – Must be applied in addition to foam sheathing when not used as the approved WRB layer Fear of water intrusion is a good thing Follow current code requirements and technical evaluation reports

67 Proper Use of VR with Foam Suppresses Condensation and Promotes Drying IRC and IBC have vapor retarder options for CI – Zones 1 and 2: Low perm on exterior side of wall – IRC Section R601.3.1 and IBC section 1405.3.1.

68 “Warm Wall” VR Requirements

69 Foam Sheathing Creates Warm, Breathable Wall Continuous insulation – Prevents condensation Non-insulated sheathings – Greater condensation potential Cladding Framing Cold Warm RoofFloor

70 Foam Sheathing has Flexible Vapor Resistance Properties Foam sheathing has a successful track: – WRB moisture performance – VR properties: Full vapor barrier to Semi-permeable to Permeable Meets any climate/application requirement

71 Air Barrier Requirements Air permeability ≤ 0.004 cfm/ft 2 Comply with ASHRAE 90.1: – Portland cement stucco – Plywood, OSB sheathing – XPS and foil-faced polyiso foam sheathing – Gypsum board – Spray foam

72 Topic #5: Installation Details Must be installed per manufacturer’s instructions Architects can provide construction details for plan approval

73 Topic #5: Installation Details TER No. 1205–05 at Provides path for code compliance and approval DXF files also available

74 Topic #5: Installation Details Manufacturer installation instructions Detailing of CI wall assemblies with 6"+ of foam DOE’s Building America Program Alaska REMOTE house

75 Detailing Tips If no more than 2” of CI on a 2x4 wall – Total wall thickness for window and door frames is no different than 2x6 construction – 3.5” + 2” = 5.5”

76 Detailing Tips For thicker applications of CI: – May need to “box out” window and door openings – Corner/trim details required – Furring can provide siding attachment and positive securement

77 Example Details (Thick Foam)

78 THANK YOU! Questions?

79 This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course

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