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Brought to you by Team Daisy LELE| HUI MIN JING YI|XIAO QIAN|IAN.

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Presentation on theme: "Brought to you by Team Daisy LELE| HUI MIN JING YI|XIAO QIAN|IAN."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brought to you by Team Daisy LELE| HUI MIN JING YI|XIAO QIAN|IAN

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3  Denotations  literal meaning of the word. Speakers of the same language usually have the same understanding  Referents  Tied to situations; usually changes. Often something you can point at or mental images, using as references. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

4  The President of United States Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

5 a) The President of United States We are only referents! Something that you can see, point at and make references. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

6  The President of United States Denotation: The elected head of the country, United States Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

7 b) The capital of Canada Referents: Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

8 b) The capital of Canada Denotation: A state where the government of Canada functions in Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

9 c) The woman who walked on the moon Referents: The first woman who went to the moonGirl’s failed attempt at moonwalking Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

10 c) The woman who walked on the moon Denotations: A female who went out of space, landed on the moon, and walked. (not a particular/specific woman, but any woman) Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

11 c) The woman who walked on the moon Denotations: A female who went out of space, landed on the moon, and walked. (not a particular/specific woman, but any woman) Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

12 d) My linguist professor Referents: Dr. Yosuke NUS Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

13 d) My linguist professor Denotation: - Someone who teaches me the science of a language - Someone’s lectures on science of language that I attend Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

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15 B) The eye of a needle the foot of the bed The hands of the clock The arm of a chair Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END Describe parts of an object in terms of human body components Target: parts of an object Source: human body components

16 C) This lecture is easy to digest He just eats up the lecturer’s words. Chew on this thought for awhile. Listen to this juicy piece of gossip. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END Describe information in terms of food Target: information Source: food

17 D) Your claims are indefensible. He shot down all my arguments His criticisms were right on target. If you use that strategy, he’ll wipe you out. I demolished his argument. He attacked every weak point in my argument. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END Describe arguments in terms of war Target: arguments Source: war

18 F) He unleased his anger. Her anger was aroused. Your temper is ferocious. She was bristling with rage. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END Describe anger in terms of a dangerous animal Target: anger Source: a dangerous animal

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20 DEFINITION: Proposition A entails Proposition B if the truth of A makes B necessarily true. i.e. If A is true, B has to be true. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

21 The statement Hilary and Dana are married to each other entails A. Hilary is woman. B. Dana is Hilary’s spouse. C. Hilary and Dana are husband and wife. D. Dana is not single. E. Hilary and Dana live together. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

22 The statement Hilary and Dana are married to each other entails A. Hilary is woman. B. Dana is Hilary’s spouse. C. Hilary and Dana are husband and wife. D. Dana is not single. E. Hilary and Dana live together. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

23 The statement Hilary and Dana are married to each other does not entail A. Hilary is woman.  being married to each other does not indicate their respective gender C. Hilary and Dana are husband and wife.  being married to each other does not guarantee that there is a husband and a wife in the marriage. exceptions: homosexual marriages E. Hilary and Dana live together.  they can be married but live in different places, in different countries at the moment Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

24 The statement Hilary and Dana are married to each other entails B. Dana is Hilary’s spouse.  If Hilary and Dana are married to each other, then Dana is definitely Hilary’s spouse. D. Dana is not single.  If Hilary and Dana are married to each other, then Dana is definitely not single. Dana cannot be married and single at the same time. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

25 The statement Romeo kissed Juliet passionately entails A. Romeo kissed Juliet. B. Juliet kissed Romeo. C. Romeo kissed Juliet many times. D. Juliet was kissed by Romeo. E. Romeo loves Juliet. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

26 The statement Romeo kissed Juliet passionately entails A. Romeo kissed Juliet. B. Juliet kissed Romeo (Possible) C. Romeo kissed Juliet many times. D. Juliet was kissed by Romeo. E. Romeo loves Juliet. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

27 The statement Romeo kissed Juliet passionately does not entail B. Juliet kissed Romeo.  Romeo kissed Juliet passionately does not indicate any action on Juliet’s part.  However, B can be entailment if ‘kiss’ have a reciprocal meaning. C. Romeo kissed Juliet many times.  kissing passionately does not necessarily mean kissing many times. E. Romeo loves Juliet.  Romeo kissed Juliet passionately does not necessarily mean Romeo loves Juliet. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

28 The statement Romeo kissed Juliet passionately entails A. Romeo kissed Juliet  If Romeo kissed Juliet passionately, then he must have kissed Juliet. D. Juliet was kissed by Romeo.  If Romeo kissed Juliet passionately, then Juliet must have been kissed by Romeo. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

29 The statement John shot Tom’s brother dead entails A. John is a murderer. B. Tom’s brother was a victim of violent crime. C. Tom’s brother is dead. D. John knew Tom’s brother. E. John hated Tom. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

30 The statement John shot Tom’s brother dead entails A. John is a murderer. B. Tom’s brother was a victim of violent crime. C. Tom’s brother is dead. D. John knew Tom’s brother. E. John hated Tom. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

31 The statement John shot Tom’s brother dead does not entail A. John is a murderer.  A murderer kills with malicious intent, but John might not have malicious intents while shooting Tom’s brother. (unintentional killing?)  Case where John is a policemen may also negate the fact that John is a murderer. D. John knew Tom’s brother.  John did not have to know Tom’s brother to shoot him. E. John hated Tom.  John did not have to hate Tom to shoot his brother. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

32 The statement John shot Tom’s brother dead entails B. Tom’s brother was a victim of violent crime.  B is not entailment as it may not be violent (Eg. Euthanasia, shot in the sense of needle poke)  It could also be a case of crime where John may be a police shooting down the criminal, Tom. The shooting may be voluntary and Tom can be an animal. C. Tom’s brother is dead.  If John shot Tom’s brother dead, it must be true that Tom’s brother is dead. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

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34  An assumption.  A ‘hidden premise’  An implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to a sentence whose truth is taken for granted, so to speak.  An assumption which must be non-negotiable for a proposition to make sense.  *If required, you may use the negation test, where the negation of a sentence does NOT change its presuppositions. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

35 John regrets that Maria went to the graduation ceremony. John believes that Maria went to the graduation ceremony Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

36 John regrets that Maria went to the graduation ceremony.  “Regrets”  The graduation ceremony must have had taken place  John knows that Maria went for the graduation ceremony  John knows the existence of Maria. John believes that Maria went to the graduation ceremony.  “Believes”  John does not know for sure if Maria went to the graduation ceremony or not.  John does not know if the ceremony that Maria went for is the graduation ceremony or another ceremony Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

37 The Captain thought that the ship was in danger. The Captain realized that the ship was in danger. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

38 The Captain thought that the ship was in danger.  “Thought”  Like “believes,” this word conveys an opinion about something that may not be true.  It may not be the ship that was in danger, but someone/something else  Nothing may in fact be in danger. The Captain realized that the ship was in danger.  “Realised”  The ship was in danger.  The Captain recognised the existence of the ship.  The Captain had received some form of indicator that the ship was in danger. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

39 It is significant that the criminal was sentenced. It is likely that the criminal was sentenced. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

40 It is significant that the criminal was sentenced.  “Significant”  Signals that the criminal has been sentenced  The criminal was caught.  The criminal has been proven by the legal authorities to be a ‘criminal’ It is likely that the criminal was sentenced.  “Likely”  Like, “believes” and “thought,” this word indicates a suggestion, which does not affirm the actuality of events.  The sentence may not have been issued. The criminal may not have been sentenced. The criminal may not have been caught. The supposed ‘criminal’ may have not been proven guilty, or have been proven innocent. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

41 Who killed Sylvia?  Sylvia is dead.  A person killed Sylvia.  A person called Sylvia exists.  The person that killed Sylvia exists. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

42 Where did you put the cheese?  There is something called cheese.  You know the location of the cheese.  The cheese was moved by someone - ‘you’.  ‘you’ know the cheese I am referring to. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

43 Why is there sadness in the world?  There is a concept such as sadness.  There is a world. (DUH…)  There’s a reason for sadness. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

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