2Our questions so far: What is the main issue? What is the conclusion? What are the reasons?What words or phrases are ambiguous?
3When making an argument, speakers and writers always take certain things for granted1.1take something for granted – accept, assume to be true(usually without stating it explicitly)
4You will need to find and understand these ideas by “reading between the lines”2.You must learn how to read between the lines, otherwise you won’t completely understand the argument – and might even accept a conclusion that you don’t really believe!2read between the lines – figure out the meaning (from a statement orsituation), even though the meaning has not been clearly stated.
5AssumptionsAssume – To accept, take for granted, supposesomething to be true – without proof.In an argument, assumptions are typically hidden.Because they are hidden, they can be deceptive!As a result, they can influence the conclusion.
6Where should I look for assumptions? Reasons are used to support the conclusion.So, look for assumptions that:1. Are necessary for a reason to be true.2. Provide a logical “link” between the reasons andthe conclusion.
7Values are ideas that people think are worthwhile. Value ConflictsValues are ideas that people think are worthwhile.For example, someone might say:I value the the sanctity of life.I value hard work and the freedom to reach my goals.I value peace and harmony between nations.
8For our purposes, values are related to Value ConflictsFor our purposes, values are related toabstract1 ideas, not concrete things.These ideas influence our daily lives in significant ways – the choices we make, our behavior, our ways of thinking, etc.1abstract – existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or concrete existence: abstract concepts such as love or beauty.
9Value ConflictsValue conflicts occur when people have different opinions due to different ways of looking at life.Remember when we discussed biases, and how they can affect our view of other people’s opinions?
10Value ConflictsBiases – and ultimately, value conflicts – are influenced by things such as:Our personal experiencesSocial status / upbringingEducational levelCulture
11ExampleThe police need to punish people who litter1. People are not acting responsibly on their own to follow the law. Consequently, the police must do something. How will things gets better if the police don’t enforce the law?1Litter – verb to throw garbage, trash, rubbish on the ground
12Individual Responsibility vs. Collective Responsibility Value ConflictsValue conflicts occur not only between different people, but within ourselves.Loyalty vs. HonestyIndividual Responsibility vs. Collective ResponsibilityCompetition vs. Cooperation
13ExampleSometimes it’s best to be faithful to a friend. I saw a classmate cheating during an exam. The teacher didn’t see him. If I tell the teacher, my classmate will be punished. He could fail the course, or even get thrown out of school. Anyway, who is really hurt by his behavior? My classmate will be my friend for life, so I need to protect him. I think it’s best if I say nothing to the teacher. I’ll just tell my friend to study harder and not cheat anymore.