Presentation on theme: "Case Studies we need to revise / know"— Presentation transcript:
1Case Studies we need to revise / know 1. PHYSICAL SYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENTSGEOMORPHIC LANDSCAPE (EU) OLD HARRY / HOLDERNESSCLIMATE: UK – MARITIMECLIMATE: MEDITERAINIANCLIMATE: RAINFORESTAN ECOSYSTEM: BRAZIL RAINFORESTS2. NATURAL HAZARDS & PEOPLEMEDC EARTHQUAKES SAN FRANSISCOLEDC ERATHQUAKES SAMOA PHILLIPINESMEDC FLOODS MISSISSIPILEDC FLOODS BANGLADESH3. INDUSTRY & DEVELOPMENTLOCATION OF HEAVY & HIGH TECHTOURISM IN MEDC (IBIZA)TOURISM IN LEDC (THAILAND)TNC: FORDAID: PRACTICAL ACTION4. POPULATION & SETTLEMENTMIGRATION: MEXICO - USAPOPULATION CHANGE: CHINAREGIONAL DIFFERENCES: UKREDEVELOPMENT: DOCKLANDSURBANISATION: RIO & ROCINIA FAVELLA
21. PHYSICAL SYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENTS GEOMORPHIC LANDSCAPE (EU) OLD HARRY / HOLDERNESSCLIMATE: UK – MARITIMECLIMATE: MEDITERAINIANCLIMATE: RAINFORESTAN ECOSYSTEM: BRAZIL RAINFORESTS
3Maritime Climate: British Isles Name of placeUnited KingdomName of ClimateMaritime climateLocationNorth West EuropeMain Features:Cool summers & warm winters.West and North Wetter / South WarmerA prevailing wind from the southwest which is warm and moist meaning we have on average rain on 1 in 3 days.Average temp = 9 degrees Total Rainfall = 600mmReasons for our climate:Latitude = We are north of the equator and further from the sun so we are cooler than other places further south.Gulf stream = The warm water flowing towards us from the south (gulf) keeps us mild in winterPrevailing wind = most common wind comes from south west and brings water from the Atlantic causing rain.Depressions = Low pressure comes across us and warm air meeting cool air increases amounts of rainAnti cyclones = High pressure blocks depressions and we have clear skies. (Freezing in winter & Hot in summer)
4Mediterranean: EU Climate Name of placeMediterranean (southern Europe / Northern Africa)Name of ClimateMediterranean climateLocation(southern Europe / Northern Africa)Main Features:Hot summers (40 degrees) & warm winters (5 degrees).Summer months June-Sep in some areas have 0mm rainfall.Average temp = 20 degrees Total Rainfall = 450 mmReasons for our climate:Latitude = The area sits around 40 degrees north & south of the equator so is warm near the sun.Warm oceans = keep the winters mild as the sea cools down slowly.Anti cyclones = High pressure blocks depressions throughout the summer and keeps hot, dry weather with clear skies.
5Equatorial Climate: Amazon- Brazil Name of placeBrazil (Manaus)Name of ClimateEquatorialLocationSouth AmericaMain Features:Hot & WetTemperatures vary only 2 degrees throughout the year.The weather pattern is the same all day every dayAverage temp = 23 degrees Total Rainfall = 2104 mmReasons for our climate:Latitude = On the equator so is closest to the sun and therefore very hot.Prevailing wind = Comes from the desert regions north and south of the equator (hot air)Convectional rainfall
6Rainforest ecosystems: Amazon Pg 85 Revision guideName of placeAmazon rainforest: Equatorial:LocationSouth America – Northern Brazil (on equator)Facts:There are 4 layers of plants in the rainforest.Nutrient & water cycle are a big part of rainforest systemsPlants have adapted in many ways: buttress roots - SUPPORT & carnivorous plants (MORE NUTRIENTS).Human positive impactsImproved transportation & infrastructure for local people.Profits from selling resources can be used to improve infrastructure (70% of the Amazon has been rented to companies by the government).Raw materials, such as hardwood (4% of the GDP) and medicines from plants can be exported for profit.Human negative impactsDeforestation means more CO2 in the air. (20% Amazon is gone)An area the size of a football pitch is lost each secondLoss of Habitat: Extinction of plant and animal species (1 a day!)Destruction of tribal settlements / way of life. (less than 70 left)Sustainable managementReplanting after cutting down (Afforestation)MEDC countries only to buy government approved wood.Create reserves for local tribes and plant & animal species. Amazon Region Protected Areas (ARPA) is the worlds largest protected area.
7Geomorphic Landscape: LOCATIONOld Harry Rocks, Dorset (Swanage) UKGEOMORPHIC PROCESSESS OF ITS INITIAL CREATIONChalk made up of fossilised remains of single-celled organisms that lived in the sea.Fossils became compressed under the sea to form the rockAs sea levels fell, the chalk became exposed as a cliff.GEOMORPHIC PROCESSESS OF ITS CURRENT STATECave – Arch – Stack – StumpHUMAN ACTIVITY68% of Old Harry is being weathered more by acid rain.It is now an AOANB (Area of outstanding natural beauty) and is protected from footpath erosion
8Holderness Coastal management LOCATIONNorth East England (near Hull)CREATIONHeadlands and bays have been formed along this coast line due to erosion rates and caused a spit to the south due to long shore drift.PROBLEMSErosion: Softer ‘boulder clay’ is being eroded quickly at 2m a yearLong Shore Drift: moving the material southwards (spit at ‘Spurnhead)EFFECTS29 villages have been claimed by the sea in 1000 yearsFarmers are losing valuable farmlandIn June 1993 the Holbeck Hall Hotel slumped into the sea.Sea defences at Mappleton are causing problems further along the coast as there is less sediment to travel down (spurn head is in danger)SOLUTIONS£2 million was spent on putting in a ‘rip rap’ large granite blocks to absorb the waves energy at Mappleton2 rock groynes were erected to build up the beach at Mappletopn: BUT… this led to increased erosion of farmland south of the groynes.A sea wall has been erected at Eastington to protect the gas stationOffshore reefs of old tyres have been placed in the sea along the coastline
102. NATURAL HAZARDS & PEOPLE MEDC EARTHQUAKES SAN FRANSISCOLEDC ERATHQUAKES SAMOA PHILLIPINESMEDC FLOODS MISSISSIPILEDC FLOODS BANGLADESH
11MEDC: Tectonic Hazard: San Francisco Location & Date:San Francisco: 17th October 1989Plates and Boundary TypeSan Andreas fault: CONSERVATIVE6.9 on the Richter scaleCause of Earthquake:The movement of the North American and the Pacific plates at different speeds leads to build up in tension, which eventually is released as an earthquake.Human Effects:Physical EffectsPredictions & Preventions808 seismometers along the boundary & Nasa satellites monitor the plate movements.Earthquake proof buildings & Evacuation plans.Responses:186 ambulance dispatched within an hour.Within 48 hours, environmental health staff conducted a complete surveyProvided food and shelter to persons displaced by earthquake damageChurch groups who were opening up new shelters for homelessPRIMARY67 deathsSECONDARY2000 made homelessPRIMARY6000 homes destroyed9 bridges collapsedSECONDARYNumerous fires from burst gas pipes$4.4 billion in reconstruction costs
12LEDC: Tectonic Hazard Case Study: Samoa / Phillipines Location & DateSamoa September 2009: 8.1 Richter scalePlates and Boundary TypePacific & Eurasian plateCause of Earthquake:Friction between plates and 14 m high tsunami caused.Human Effects:Physical EffectsPredictions & PreventionsA tsunami warning was initially issued by US government (from MEDC’s mainly)Limited preventions due to low GDP (no money!)Responses:The New Zealand government also pledged over NZ$12 million for relief efforts.The New Zealand Red Cross appeal raised donations amounting to almost NZ$3.5 million.Australia & USA sent troops & medical teams to rebuild the areaPRIMARY189 killedSECONDARY3000 homeless on 1 island aloneSECONDARY$ million costs80% of all buildings damaged due to poor construction.PRIMARYpeople in villages have been cut off because the main bridge was washed away.
13LEDC: Weather Hazard Location Bangladesh, Asia Date of Flood: 1998 Cause of Flood:Melt water from the Himalayas (spring)Monsoon rains (June – November)Low land – 80% of Bangladesh is a floodplain(1m above sea level)Human Effects:Physical EffectsPrediction & PreventionPREDICTION:Very basic early warning siren system.PREVENTION:7,500km of flood embankments have been constructed (FROM MUD)major embankments around Dhaka have been suggested however lack of money has meant that these suggestions have not been taken further.Responses:Bangladesh government to try and reduce the impact of food shortages - the government also gave 350,000 tonnes of cereal to feed locals.HUMAN CAUSESIncreasing population pressureIncreased deforestationLack of preventionPRIMARY1000 deathsSECONDARY30 million homelessSpread of Cholera (water born diseases)PRIMARY66% of farm land flooded668,000 ha of crops destroyedSECONDARY20% decrease in production of clothes (400 clothing factories closed).New fertile soil the floods bring.
14MEDC: Weather Hazard Location Mississippi, USA, North America Date of Flood:1993 (200 days of rain)Cause of Flood:60cm of rain (200% more than average)High pressure (anticyclone) stopped rain being pushed awaySaturation of soil was 100% so all rainwater was run off.Human Effects:Physical EffectsPrediction & PreventionPREDICTION: National Weather service ‘flood prevention website’PREVENTION: Billions of dollars spent on: Embankments, Levees, Dams etcResponses:$6 billion given by government in the aid effort fro homeless.Flood defences were rebuiltPRIMARY11 deathsSECONDARY54’000 evacuated & homeless16 deaths from illness as a cause of the flood.PRIMARYDamaged 50’000 houses6.6 million acres of Farm land floodedSECONDARY10 airports shutRoads and rail closed in area
163. INDUSTRY & DEVELOPMENT LOCATION OF HEAVY & HIGH TECHTOURISM IN MEDC (IBIZA)TOURISM IN LEDC (THAILAND)TNC: FORDAID: PRACTICAL ACTION
17Heavy Industry Rhur Rhur: Germany Name of place Location Good days PAGE 45 IN REVISION GUIDEHeavy Industry RhurName of placeRhur: GermanyLocationWest Germany (largely urban area)Good days19th centuryIn the 19th century almost 750 industries were open.Employing over ½ a million people.An abundance of coal and iron ore with good transport of rivers & canals made it perfect for heavy industry.Bad daysPost WW2 (1950’s)After WW2 the industries were closed.In the 1950’s coal production had reduced by over 6 million ton’sCompetition from LEDC producers made MEDC metals & coal too expensive.
18Footloose / High Tech M4 Corridor Name of placeM4 corridor – Aztec business parkLocationSouth West UK along the M4 near BristolWhat is it:Manufacturing high tech products like micro chips or medicines etc.What they needEducated populations (near universities)Good Road transport for goods and workers (M4, Bristol airport, south west trains)Good sized towns for enough workers.SustainabilityThere are over 100 business HQ’s an high tech factories along this area such as: SONYThese business’s are ‘footloose’ so can move and therefore governments keep them by giving them tax benefits etc to keep there income from tax’s and the jobs they provide.
19Ford a TNC Issue it relates to Old Location New Location as a TNC +ve Transnational's, Changing locations of Industry, Impacts of TNC’s on LEDC countries.Old LocationUSA does all in massive ‘Ford’ factories. (They moved because it became too expensive to do things in MEDC’s)New Locationas a TNCHQ = Detroit USAManufacturing = IndiaSales = MEDC’s (Europe, Japan, N’ America)Admin = Philippines+veSocial: 2000 new jobs in India white collar jobs.Economic: 1,800 white collar jobs provide a higher level of income for the area.Environmental: Improves land they develop.-veSocial: High paid managers are from MEDC’s so stop progression.Economic: All the profits (2.6billion) go back to USAEnvironmental: Using their resources and polluting the air.
20Ibiza (Spain) MEDC Name of place Tourists Location +ve -ve 18-30 clubbing touristsLocationSpanish Island:Mediterranean ocean:+veECONOMICAL: E 939 million a yearSOCIALLY: Creates 1000’s of jobs for local people.-veSOCIALLY: Westernisation of the original culture (now drink & drugs etc)ENVIRONMENTALLY: Litter levels have more than tripled.Future SustainabilityGovernment has introduced different advertising to encourage different tourist types to visit the north of the island who will help protect and conserve nature and culture.
21Pukhet (Thailand) LEDC PAGE 254 IN GEOG.GCSEPukhet (Thailand) LEDCName of placePukhetLocationSouth East Asia, south of Laos.Type of touristsBackpackersFamily groups+veECONOMIC: billion baht = £3.5 billion generated.SOCIAL: 1 in every 10 jobs is in the tourist trade.-veECONOMIC: Drug Trade = 500 billion baht illegal money with no tax going to government and costs police forces.SOCIAL: Prostitution = 9% of the female population is linked to the sex trade.SOCIAL: Overcrowding = Thailand's population increase by 4 times in summer.Future SustainabilityEncouraging eco and cultural tourism to rainforest areas, religious temples and social projects like orphanages.
22Practical Action: Long term Sustainable Aid Project focus:Building bricks and homes in shanty towns.Location of project.ZimbabweWhy they need aid.Poverty in slumsFires in slumsInflation doubling prices every 24 hours.Who they are helping.Epworth WomenYouthHow they helped.ECONOMICALLY: £1 million budget / Euros:1,110233SOCIALLY: Machinery, Education & Training.ENVIRONMENTALLY: Using locally sourced material.Results of aid.ECONOMICALLY: 60 new brick factories and 100 other related business’s.SOCIALLY: 20% Housing is now brick in shanty towns reducing fire risk.ENVIRONMENTALLY: Less pollution now (1 tonne of wood to make a1000 bricks is now only 150kg coal to make 1000 bricks)
244. POPULATION & SETTLEMENT MIGRATION: MEXICO - USAPOPULATION CHANGE: CHINAREGIONAL DIFFERENCES: UKREDEVELOPMENT: DOCKLANDSURBANISATION: RIO & ROCINIA FAVELLA
25China: Changing populations LEDC LocationEast Asia: bordering Japan.CauseBefore the policy the average family had 5 children each. (more than doubling the population every generation!Population was nearing 1 billion. (1/6 of the world population)EffectsOvercrowding & congestion in cities and towns.Lack of food: (if population growth had continued ‘starvation of millions would occur)Solutions1979: 1 Child Policy introduced: (Not all rural areas had same policy mainly in cities)Parents with multiple births aren’t given the same benefits as parents of one child.Parents have to pay money to the government in order to get permission to have another child.ResultsGoodreduced population growth in the by 400 million people in 25 years.Improved healthcare & education as less people top provide for.BadGirls are not as economically good for a family as boys in China and now because of abortions & abandonment.114 males for every 100 females.Extremely high dependency ratio of older people relying on few economically active.
26Urban Redevelopment: Docklands PAGE 50 IN REVISION GUIDEUrban Redevelopment: DocklandsLocationSouth East London:Reasons for declineThe port / docks were being used less because:Modern bigger ships could not enter this far up the Thames.‘Containerisation’ *(things in big metal box’s) meant less people needed to take imports off boasts.The increase in air freight not by ship.Effects of the decline15% of people unemployed.Lack of open spaceSolutions(Urban re-development)ECONOMIC£7.7 billion in private sector investment2,700 businesses tradingSOCIAL£10 million spent on improvement council homes22,000 new homes£100 million spent on health & education.ENVIRONMENTALplanting of 200,000 treesnetwork of pedestrian and cycle routes through the areaResultsSUCCESSunemployment had fallen to 7%22,000 news housing units1000s of new jobsFALIUREThe jobs with new businesses mainly required skills that the locals did not have.Locals were unable to afford the high costs of the new houses
27International Migration: Mexico - USA Issue it relates toInternational Migration: (1 million migrate every year)LocationMexico & USA: North America. (2000km border)Push & Pull FactorsPULL FACTORSGood healthcare- 400 per doctorWell paid jobs - GNP = $24,750)Adult literacy rates Good 99Life expectancy 76 yrsMany jobs available for low paid workers such as MexicansPUSH FACTORSPoor healthcare per doctorLow paid jobs - (GNP = $3750)Adult literacy rates 55% - poor education prospectsLife expectancy 72 yrs40% UnemployedUSA effectsIllegal migration costs the USA millions of dollars for border patrols and prisonsMexican migrants benefit the US economy by working for low wagesMexican culture has enriched the US border states with food, language and musicMexico effectsThe Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active peopleLegal and illegal immigrants together send some $6 billion a year back to MexicoCertain villages such as Santa Ines have lost 2/3 of its inhabitants
28Regional differences: Scotland vs South England High Population densitySouth East EnglandLow Population DensityScottish HighlandsLonger growing season – more farming is possibleShort growing season – less farming possibleFlat land – easy to build onMountainous terrain – difficult to build onFertile soils – greater crop yieldsThin, infertile soils, difficult to farmWarmer temperatures:in winter (2 degrees) and in summer (16 degrees)Colder temperatures:Winter below freezingSummer 12 degreesModerate rain 625 – 750mm per yearHigh rainfall 2000mm per yearSeveral international airports (e.g. Heathrow, Gatwick)No major international airportsWell served by a range of railwaysA few local railways (slow)Lots of motorways giving easy access e.g. M1, M25, M4Difficult to build fast roads due to mountainous terrain
29Urbanisation & shanty towns LocationRochina: Rio de Janeiro: Brazil: S. AmericaPopulation growthRio grew from 7 million in 1970 to 17 million in 1990In 2010 Rocinia had to peopleReasons for slums growthPUSH:Poor rural livesNo healthcareProblemsHealth; Sewage is left out in the street. A lack of clean water. Doctors and hospitals & Disease spreads quickly in this environment e.g: dysentery and typhoid. cholera in 1992.Education: is limited because of a lack of funding.Children are often employed at an early age (sometimes as young as 6)Transport: Roads are usually earth tracks.SolutionsLow cost improvements. Existing houses have been upgraded to include a water tank that collects water, added electricity and sewers for a low cost rent. Rio city authorities have spent $500,000 on the 'Favela-Bairio' programmeSelf-help schemes. People are encouraged to build their own home and the local authorities pay for the materials needed. Breeze blocks and other cheap materials are used. The money saved on labour goes on installing electricity, sewers, roads….PULL:Promise of jobsReuniting with family