Presentation on theme: "Case Studies we need to revise / know 1. PHYSICAL SYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENTS GEOMORPHIC LANDSCAPE (EU) OLD HARRY / HOLDERNESS CLIMATE: UK – MARITIME CLIMATE:"— Presentation transcript:
Case Studies we need to revise / know 1. PHYSICAL SYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENTS GEOMORPHIC LANDSCAPE (EU) OLD HARRY / HOLDERNESS CLIMATE: UK – MARITIME CLIMATE: MEDITERAINIAN CLIMATE: RAINFOREST AN ECOSYSTEM: BRAZIL RAINFORESTS 2. NATURAL HAZARDS & PEOPLE MEDC EARTHQUAKES SAN FRANSISCO LEDC ERATHQUAKES SAMOA PHILLIPINES MEDC FLOODS MISSISSIPI LEDC FLOODS BANGLADESH 3. INDUSTRY & DEVELOPMENT LOCATION OF HEAVY & HIGH TECH TOURISM IN MEDC (IBIZA) TOURISM IN LEDC (THAILAND) TNC: FORD AID: PRACTICAL ACTION 4. POPULATION & SETTLEMENT MIGRATION: MEXICO - USA POPULATION CHANGE: CHINA REGIONAL DIFFERENCES: UK REDEVELOPMENT: DOCKLANDS URBANISATION: RIO & ROCINIA FAVELLA
1. PHYSICAL SYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENTS GEOMORPHIC LANDSCAPE (EU) OLD HARRY / HOLDERNESS CLIMATE: UK – MARITIME CLIMATE: MEDITERAINIAN CLIMATE: RAINFOREST AN ECOSYSTEM: BRAZIL RAINFORESTS
Maritime Climate: British Isles Name of place United Kingdom Name of Climate Maritime climate Location North West Europe Main Features: Cool summers & warm winters. West and North Wetter / South Warmer A prevailing wind from the southwest which is warm and moist meaning we have on average rain on 1 in 3 days. Average temp = 9 degrees Total Rainfall = 600mm Reasons for our climate: Latitude = We are north of the equator and further from the sun so we are cooler than other places further south. Gulf stream = The warm water flowing towards us from the south (gulf) keeps us mild in winter Prevailing wind = most common wind comes from south west and brings water from the Atlantic causing rain. Depressions = Low pressure comes across us and warm air meeting cool air increases amounts of rain Anti cyclones = High pressure blocks depressions and we have clear skies. (Freezing in winter & Hot in summer)
Mediterranean: EU Climate Name of placeMediterranean (southern Europe / Northern Africa) Name of ClimateMediterranean climate Location(southern Europe / Northern Africa) Main Features: Hot summers (40 degrees) & warm winters (5 degrees). Summer months June-Sep in some areas have 0mm rainfall. Average temp = 20 degrees Total Rainfall = 450 mm Reasons for our climate: Latitude = The area sits around 40 degrees north & south of the equator so is warm near the sun. Warm oceans = keep the winters mild as the sea cools down slowly. Anti cyclones = High pressure blocks depressions throughout the summer and keeps hot, dry weather with clear skies.
Equatorial Climate: Amazon- Brazil Name of placeBrazil (Manaus) Name of ClimateEquatorial LocationSouth America Main Features: Hot & Wet Temperatures vary only 2 degrees throughout the year. The weather pattern is the same all day every day Average temp = 23 degrees Total Rainfall = 2104 mm Reasons for our climate: Latitude = On the equator so is closest to the sun and therefore very hot. Prevailing wind = Comes from the desert regions north and south of the equator (hot air) Convectional rainfall
Rainforest ecosystems: Amazon Name of place Amazon rainforest: Equatorial: Location South America – Northern Brazil (on equator) Facts: There are 4 layers of plants in the rainforest. Nutrient & water cycle are a big part of rainforest systems Plants have adapted in many ways: buttress roots - SUPPORT & carnivorous plants (MORE NUTRIENTS). Human positive impacts Improved transportation & infrastructure for local people. Profits from selling resources can be used to improve infrastructure (70% of the Amazon has been rented to companies by the government). Raw materials, such as hardwood (4% of the GDP) and medicines from plants can be exported for profit. Human negative impacts Deforestation means more CO2 in the air. (20% Amazon is gone) An area the size of a football pitch is lost each second Loss of Habitat: Extinction of plant and animal species (1 a day!) Destruction of tribal settlements / way of life. (less than 70 left) Sustainable management Replanting after cutting down (Afforestation) MEDC countries only to buy government approved wood. Create reserves for local tribes and plant & animal species. Amazon Region Protected Areas (ARPA) is the worlds largest protected area. Pg 85 Revision guide
Geomorphic Landscape: LOCATION Old Harry Rocks, Dorset (Swanage) UK GEOMORPHIC PROCESSESS OF ITS INITIAL CREATION 1.Chalk made up of fossilised remains of single-celled organisms that lived in the sea. 2.Fossils became compressed under the sea to form the rock 3.As sea levels fell, the chalk became exposed as a cliff. GEOMORPHIC PROCESSESS OF ITS CURRENT STATE Cave – Arch – Stack – Stump HUMAN ACTIVITY 68% of Old Harry is being weathered more by acid rain. It is now an AOANB (Area of outstanding natural beauty) and is protected from footpath erosion
Holderness Coastal management LOCATION North East England (near Hull) CREATION Headlands and bays have been formed along this coast line due to erosion rates and caused a spit to the south due to long shore drift. PROBLEMS Erosion: Softer ‘boulder clay’ is being eroded quickly at 2m a year Long Shore Drift: moving the material southwards (spit at ‘Spurnhead) EFFECTS 29 villages have been claimed by the sea in 1000 years Farmers are losing valuable farmland In June 1993 the Holbeck Hall Hotel slumped into the sea. Sea defences at Mappleton are causing problems further along the coast as there is less sediment to travel down (spurn head is in danger) SOLUTIONS £2 million was spent on putting in a ‘rip rap’ large granite blocks to absorb the waves energy at Mappleton 2 rock groynes were erected to build up the beach at Mappletopn: BUT… this led to increased erosion of farmland south of the groynes. A sea wall has been erected at Eastington to protect the gas station Offshore reefs of old tyres have been placed in the sea along the coastline
2. NATURAL HAZARDS & PEOPLE MEDC EARTHQUAKES SAN FRANSISCO LEDC ERATHQUAKES SAMOA PHILLIPINES MEDC FLOODS MISSISSIPI LEDC FLOODS BANGLADESH
MEDC: Tectonic Hazard: San Francisco Location & Date: San Francisco: 17th October 1989 Plates and Boundary Type San Andreas fault: CONSERVATIVE 6.9 on the Richter scale Cause of Earthquake: The movement of the North American and the Pacific plates at different speeds leads to build up in tension, which eventually is released as an earthquake. Human Effects: Physical Effects Predictions & Preventions 808 seismometers along the boundary & Nasa satellites monitor the plate movements. Earthquake proof buildings & Evacuation plans. Responses: 186 ambulance dispatched within an hour. Within 48 hours, environmental health staff conducted a complete survey Provided food and shelter to persons displaced by earthquake damage Church groups who were opening up new shelters for homeless PRIMARY 67 deaths PRIMARY 6000 homes destroyed 9 bridges collapsed SECONDARY 2000 made homeless SECONDARY Numerous fires from burst gas pipes $4.4 billion in reconstruction costs
LEDC: Tectonic Hazard Case Study: Samoa / Phillipines Location & Date Samoa September 2009: 8.1 Richter scale Plates and Boundary Type Pacific & Eurasian plate Cause of Earthquake: Friction between plates and 14 m high tsunami caused. Human Effects: Physical Effects Predictions & Preventions A tsunami warning was initially issued by US government (from MEDC’s mainly) Limited preventions due to low GDP (no money!) Responses: The New Zealand government also pledged over NZ$12 million for relief efforts. The New Zealand Red Cross appeal raised donations amounting to almost NZ$3.5 million. Australia & USA sent troops & medical teams to rebuild the area PRIMARY 189 killed PRIMARY people in villages have been cut off because the main bridge was washed away. SECONDARY 3000 homeless on 1 island alone SECONDARY $ million costs 80% of all buildings damaged due to poor construction.
LocationBangladesh, Asia Date of Flood:1998 Cause of Flood: Melt water from the Himalayas (spring) Monsoon rains (June – November) Low land – 80% of Bangladesh is a floodplain (1m above sea level) Human Effects: Physical Effects Prediction & Prevention PREDICTION: Very basic early warning siren system. PREVENTION: 7,500km of flood embankments have been constructed (FROM MUD) major embankments around Dhaka have been suggested however lack of money has meant that these suggestions have not been taken further. Responses: Bangladesh government to try and reduce the impact of food shortages - the government also gave 350,000 tonnes of cereal to feed locals. LEDC: Weather Hazard PRIMARY 1000 deaths PRIMARY 66% of farm land flooded 668,000 ha of crops destroyed SECONDARY 30 million homeless Spread of Cholera (water born diseases) SECONDARY 20% decrease in production of clothes (400 clothing factories closed). New fertile soil the floods bring. HUMAN CAUSES Increasing population pressure Increased deforestation Lack of prevention
MEDC: Weather Hazard LocationMississippi, USA, North America Date of Flood:1993 (200 days of rain) Cause of Flood: 60cm of rain (200% more than average) High pressure (anticyclone) stopped rain being pushed away Saturation of soil was 100% so all rainwater was run off. Human Effects: Physical Effects Prediction & Prevention PREDICTION: National Weather service ‘flood prevention website’ PREVENTION: Billions of dollars spent on: Embankments, Levees, Dams etc Responses: $6 billion given by government in the aid effort fro homeless. Flood defences were rebuilt PRIMARY 11 deaths PRIMARY Damaged 50’000 houses 6.6 million acres of Farm land flooded SECONDARY 54’000 evacuated & homeless 16 deaths from illness as a cause of the flood. SECONDARY 10 airports shut Roads and rail closed in area
3. INDUSTRY & DEVELOPMENT LOCATION OF HEAVY & HIGH TECH TOURISM IN MEDC (IBIZA) TOURISM IN LEDC (THAILAND) TNC: FORD AID: PRACTICAL ACTION
Heavy Industry Rhur Name of place Rhur: Germany Location West Germany (largely urban area) Good days 19 th century In the 19 th century almost 750 industries were open. Employing over ½ a million people. An abundance of coal and iron ore with good transport of rivers & canals made it perfect for heavy industry. Bad days Post WW2 (1950’s) After WW2 the industries were closed. In the 1950’s coal production had reduced by over 6 million ton’s Competition from LEDC producers made MEDC metals & coal too expensive. PAGE 45 IN REVISION GUIDE
Footloose / High Tech M4 Corridor Name of place M4 corridor – Aztec business park Location South West UK along the M4 near Bristol What is it: Manufacturing high tech products like micro chips or medicines etc. What they need Educated populations (near universities) Good Road transport for goods and workers (M4, Bristol airport, south west trains) Good sized towns for enough workers. Sustainability There are over 100 business HQ’s an high tech factories along this area such as: SONY These business’s are ‘footloose’ so can move and therefore governments keep them by giving them tax benefits etc to keep there income from tax’s and the jobs they provide.
Ford a TNC Issue it relates to Transnational's, Changing locations of Industry, Impacts of TNC’s on LEDC countries. Old Location USA does all in massive ‘Ford’ factories. (They moved because it became too expensive to do things in MEDC’s) New Location as a TNC HQ = Detroit USA Manufacturing = India Sales = MEDC’s (Europe, Japan, N’ America) Admin = Philippines +ve Social: 2000 new jobs in India white collar jobs. Economic: 1,800 white collar jobs provide a higher level of income for the area. Environmental: Improves land they develop. -ve Social: High paid managers are from MEDC’s so stop progression. Economic: All the profits (2.6billion) go back to USA Environmental: Using their resources and polluting the air.
Ibiza (Spain) MEDC Name of place Ibiza Tourists clubbing tourists Location Spanish Island: Mediterranean ocean: +ve ECONOMICAL: E 939 million a year SOCIALLY: Creates 1000’s of jobs for local people. -ve SOCIALLY: Westernisation of the original culture (now drink & drugs etc) ENVIRONMENTALLY: Litter levels have more than tripled. Future Sustainability Government has introduced different advertising to encourage different tourist types to visit the north of the island who will help protect and conserve nature and culture.
Pukhet (Thailand) LEDC Name of placePukhet LocationSouth East Asia, south of Laos. Type of tourists Backpackers Family groups +ve ECONOMIC: billion baht = £3.5 billion generated. SOCIAL: 1 in every 10 jobs is in the tourist trade. -ve ECONOMIC: Drug Trade = 500 billion baht illegal money with no tax going to government and costs police forces. SOCIAL: Prostitution = 9% of the female population is linked to the sex trade. SOCIAL: Overcrowding = Thailand's population increase by 4 times in summer. Future SustainabilityEncouraging eco and cultural tourism to rainforest areas, religious temples and social projects like orphanages. PAGE 254 IN GEOG.GCSE
Practical Action: Long term Sustainable Aid Project focus: Building bricks and homes in shanty towns. Location of project. Zimbabwe Why they need aid. Poverty in slums Fires in slums Inflation doubling prices every 24 hours. Who they are helping. Epworth Women Youth How they helped. ECONOMICALLY: £1 million budget / Euros:1, SOCIALLY: Machinery, Education & Training. ENVIRONMENTALLY: Using locally sourced material. Results of aid. ECONOMICALLY: 60 new brick factories and 100 other related business’s. SOCIALLY: 20% Housing is now brick in shanty towns reducing fire risk. ENVIRONMENTALLY: Less pollution now (1 tonne of wood to make a1000 bricks is now only 150kg coal to make 1000 bricks)
Trade: Japan & Kenya JAPAN: medc HDI = 10 th (0.960) Total Exports = £538.8 billion Total Imports = £401.8 billion Deficit / Surplus = £137 billion Main Imports = Food, Cloth Main Exports = secondary / high tech - Cars, Chemicals, micro chips KENYA: ledc HDI = 152 nd (0.491) Total Exports = £2.6 billion Total Imports = £4.2 billion Deficit / Surplus = - £1.6 billion Main Imports = Oil, machines Main Exports = primary - Coffee, Tea
4. POPULATION & SETTLEMENT MIGRATION: MEXICO - USA POPULATION CHANGE: CHINA REGIONAL DIFFERENCES: UK REDEVELOPMENT: DOCKLANDS URBANISATION: RIO & ROCINIA FAVELLA
China: Changing populations LEDC Location East Asia: bordering Japan. Cause Before the policy the average family had 5 children each. (more than doubling the population every generation! Population was nearing 1 billion. (1/6 of the world population) Effects Overcrowding & congestion in cities and towns. Lack of food: (if population growth had continued ‘starvation of millions would occur) Solutions 1979: 1 Child Policy introduced: (Not all rural areas had same policy mainly in cities) Parents with multiple births aren’t given the same benefits as parents of one child. Parents have to pay money to the government in order to get permission to have another child. Results Good reduced population growth in the by 400 million people in 25 years. Improved healthcare & education as less people top provide for. Bad Girls are not as economically good for a family as boys in China and now because of abortions & abandonment. 114 males for every 100 females. Extremely high dependency ratio of older people relying on few economically active.
Urban Redevelopment: Docklands LocationSouth East London: Reasons for declineThe port / docks were being used less because: Modern bigger ships could not enter this far up the Thames. ‘Containerisation’ *(things in big metal box’s) meant less people needed to take imports off boasts. The increase in air freight not by ship. Effects of the decline 15% of people unemployed. Lack of open space Solutions (Urban re-development) ECONOMIC £7.7 billion in private sector investment 2,700 businesses trading SOCIAL £10 million spent on improvement council homes 22,000 new homes £100 million spent on health & education. ENVIRONMENTAL planting of 200,000 trees network of pedestrian and cycle routes through the area ResultsSUCCESS unemployment had fallen to 7% 22,000 news housing units 1000s of new jobs FALIURE × The jobs with new businesses mainly required skills that the locals did not have. × Locals were unable to afford the high costs of the new houses PAGE 50 IN REVISION GUIDE
International Migration: Mexico - USA Issue it relates toInternational Migration: (1 million migrate every year) LocationMexico & USA: North America. (2000km border) Push & Pull FactorsPULL FACTORS Good healthcare- 400 per doctor Well paid jobs - GNP = $24,750) Adult literacy rates Good 99 Life expectancy 76 yrs Many jobs available for low paid workers such as Mexicans PUSH FACTORS Poor healthcare per doctor Low paid jobs - (GNP = $3750) Adult literacy rates 55% - poor education prospects Life expectancy 72 yrs 40% Unemployed USA effects Illegal migration costs the USA millions of dollars for border patrols and prisons Mexican migrants benefit the US economy by working for low wages Mexican culture has enriched the US border states with food, language and music Mexico effects The Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active people Legal and illegal immigrants together send some $6 billion a year back to Mexico Certain villages such as Santa Ines have lost 2/3 of its inhabitants
Regional differences: Scotland vs South England High Population density South East England Low Population Density Scottish Highlands Longer growing season – more farming is possible Short growing season – less farming possible Flat land – easy to build onMountainous terrain – difficult to build on Fertile soils – greater crop yieldsThin, infertile soils, difficult to farm Warmer temperatures: in winter (2 degrees) and in summer (16 degrees) Colder temperatures: Winter below freezing Summer 12 degrees Moderate rain 625 – 750mm per yearHigh rainfall 2000mm per year Several international airports (e.g. Heathrow, Gatwick) No major international airports Well served by a range of railwaysA few local railways (slow) Lots of motorways giving easy access e.g. M1, M25, M4 Difficult to build fast roads due to mountainous terrain
Urbanisation & shanty towns LocationRochina: Rio de Janeiro: Brazil: S. America Population growth Rio grew from 7 million in 1970 to 17 million in 1990 In 2010 Rocinia had to people Reasons for slums growthPUSH: Poor rural lives No healthcare ProblemsHealth; Sewage is left out in the street. A lack of clean water. Doctors and hospitals & Disease spreads quickly in this environment e.g: dysentery and typhoid. cholera in Education: is limited because of a lack of funding. Children are often employed at an early age (sometimes as young as 6) Transport: Roads are usually earth tracks. SolutionsLow cost improvements. Existing houses have been upgraded to include a water tank that collects water, added electricity and sewers for a low cost rent. Rio city authorities have spent $500,000 on the 'Favela-Bairio' programme Self-help schemes. People are encouraged to build their own home and the local authorities pay for the materials needed. Breeze blocks and other cheap materials are used. The money saved on labour goes on installing electricity, sewers, roads…. PULL: Promise of jobs Reuniting with family