Presentation on theme: "*Affirmative Agreement When indicating that one person pr thing does something and then adding that another does the same. Use the word so or too. To avoid."— Presentation transcript:
*Affirmative Agreement When indicating that one person pr thing does something and then adding that another does the same. Use the word so or too. To avoid needless repetition of words from the affirmative statement, use the conjunction and followed by a simple statement using so or too. The order of this statement will depend on whether so or too is used. 1.When a form of the verb be is used in the main clause, the same tense of the verb be is used in the simple statement that follows. affirmative statement (be) + and + subject + verb (be) + too so + verb (be) + subject e.g. I am happy. You are happy - I am happy and you are too - I am happy and so are you
2. When a compound verb (auxiliary + verb), for example, will go, should do, has done, have written, must examine, etc. occurs in the main clause, the auxiliary of the main verb is used in the simple statement, and the subject and verb must agree. Affirmative statement + and + subject + auxiliary only + too so + auxiliary only + subject e.g. They will work in the lab tomorrow. You will work in the lab tomorrow. - They will work in the lab tomorrow and you will too - They will work in the lab tomorrow and so will you 3. When any verb except be appears without any auxiliaries in the main clause, the auxiliary do, does, or did is used in simple statement. The subject and verb must agree and the tense must be the same.
Affirmative statement + and + subject + do, does, or did + too (single verb except be) so + do, does, or did + subject e.g. Jane goes to that school. My sister goes to school - Jane goes to school and my sister does too - Jane goes to school and so does my sister *Negative Agreement Either and Neither function in simple statements much like so and too in affirmative sentences. However, either and neither are used to indicate negative agreement. The same rules for auxiliaries, be and do, does, or did apply. Negative statement + and + subject + negative auxiliary or be + either neither + positive auxiliary + subject
e.g. I didn’t see Mary this morning. John didn’t see Mary this morning. - I didn’t see Mary this morning and John didn’t either - I didn’t see Mary this morning and neither did John She hasn’t seen the movie yet. I haven’t seen the movie yet. - she hasn’t seen the movie yet and I haven’t either - she hasn’t seen the movie yet and neither have I Exercise Fill the blanks with the correct form of too, so, either and neither 1. They will leave at noon, and I will _____ 2. He has an early appointment, and _____ have I 3. The children shouldn’t take that medicine, and ______ should she
4. Rose likes to fly, and her brother does _____ 5. We don’t plan to attend the concert, and ______ do they 6. I don’t like tennis, and he doesn’t ______ 7. She has already written her composition, and _____ has her 8. She didn’t see anyone she knew, and _____ did Tim 9. We can’t study in the library, and they can’t _____ 10. I have worked there long, and _____ have you Exercise Supply the correct form of the missing verb. 1. Their plane is arriving at nine o’clock, and so _____ mine 2. You didn’t pay the rent, and she ____ either 3. Your class hasn’t begun yet, and neither ____ mine 4. Our Spanish teacher loves to travel, and we _____ too 5. He hasn’t lived in Mexico for five years, and you _____ either 6. She couldn’t attend the lecture, and neither _____ her sister 7. I’m interested in reading that book, and so _____ she 8. Michael doesn’t speak English, and his family ______ either 9. She know the answer, and I _____ too 10. That scientist isn’t too happy with the project, and neither ____ her supervisors.
*Negation To make a sentence negative, add the negative particle not after the auxiliary or verb be. If there is no auxiliary or be, add the appropriate form of do, does, or did and place in word not after that. e.g. John is richJohn is not rich Mark has seen BillMark has not seen Bill The following examples contain no auxiliary and thus use do, does, or did. e.g. Marvin likes spinachMarvin does not like spinach They went to classThey did not go to class
*Some/any If there is a noun in the complement of a negative sentence, one should add the particle any before the noun. Some affirmative sentences Anynegative sentences and question e.g. John has some money John doesn’t have any money *Hardly, barely, rarely, seldom, etc. Remember that in an English sentence it is usually incorrect to have two negatives together. This is called a double negative and is not acceptable in standard English. The following words have a negative meaning and, thus, must be used with a positive verb
Hardlyalmost nothing Barelymean or Scarcelyalmost not at all Rarely Seldom meanalmost never Hardly ever e.g. She scarcely remembers the accident (she almost doesn’t remember the accident) We seldom see phone of these animals (we almost never see photos of these animals)
*Commands A command is an imperative statement. One person orders another to do something. It can be preceded by please. The understood subject is you. Use the simple form of the verb. Close the doorleave the room Please turn off the lightOpen your book *Negative commands: A negative command is formed by adding the word don’t before the verb. Don’t close the door Please don’t turn off the light Indirect commands: Usually the verbs order, ask, tell, or say are used to indicate an indirect command. They are followed by the infinitive (to + verb). Jack asked Jill to turn off the light The policeman ordered the suspect to be quite
*Negative Indirect commands: to make an indirect command negative, add the particle not before the infinitive. Subject + verb + complement + not + (verb in infinitive) e.g. The teacher told Christopher not to open the window Please tell Jeime not to leave the room